Naga Flag and Constitution in our Identity


Everything has its own name and identity. Every nation has its own Flag and Constitution. We recognize and acknowledge different entities through their distinct culture and identity. What is the Naga identity as a Nation without a Naga Flag and Constitution? A flag is a national symbol. A national flag represents and symbolizes a country. It will be difficult to name a country without its flag and a constitution. Every country has got a specific flag as their national symbol. The Constitution is the fundamental blueprint of a country; it helps the government operate and also protect the rights of the people in the country. It explains their obligations. For Nagas, the people have a unique history with the Naga National Flag and Constitution as our identity and that is the reason why our Naga national movement continues to live on and it is why the Government of India recognized our unique history.

Naga National Flag (Zhie-ralha) and Constitution (Yehzabo) is our identity and also our road to sovereignty. The Naga Flag was first hoisted on 22 March 1956 at Parashen, near Sendenyu village, Rengma Region, Nagaland, when the Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN) was formed. Unless we get our own Identity there is no reason for the Nagas or for any Naga negotiator to accept any kind of economic package. Nothing less than the Naga Flag and Constitution should be accepted by any Naga negotiator or by the common people. We Nagas have our National Flag and Constitution, and if the GOI is sincere and committed to their Framework Agreement in recognition of Naga unique history, they should also recognise the Naga flag and constitution.

Both Nagas and non-Nagas have talked extensively about the Naga integration, and some Nagas presume that a Naga Flag and Constitution without integration is meaningless. However, what would you prefer – Naga integration under the Constitution of India or a Naga Flag and Constitution outside the Indian Constitution? Obviously, its always better to have our own Naga Flag and Constitution with integration outside the Constitution of India – which means having our own national identity. Our Naga flag and constitution is our identity – the symbol of our Naga nationality. Economic packages and Naga integration cannot be our Naga identity.

Naga integration without Naga Flag and Constitution

Accepting Naga Integration without Naga Flag and constitution could lead to the Naga national movement dying a natural death. Naga integration without Naga Flag and Constitution would be the same as the present state of Nagaland or like forming a state with same commumity or like the state of Mizoram where all the Mizos live together under one unit under the Constitution of India (their national identity is lost). A temporary Naga physical integration is insignificant without the Naga Flag and Constitution. Accepting Naga integration within the Constitution of India as a Naga political solution will be a suicidal step for the Nagas and a big blunder for the GOI as well.

Naga Flag and Constitution without Naga integration

The present artificial political boundary is not a serious problem or threat as Nagas want to live unitedly under one administrative unit. Nagas can always come together when our national identity represented by the Naga Flag and Constitution is duly recognized by GOI. The reason why GOI is always apprehensive of bringing the Nagas under one administrative unit is because that could unite the Nagas and pave the way for Naga sovereignty one day. Which is why GOI always strives to divide the Naga using various means and will continue to mislead and break up the unity of the Nagas so as to weaken and smother the Naga National Movement (NNM), but it is also the responsibility of our Naga people to stand strong regardless of the adverse weather they may encounter.

In conclusion, our Naga leaders and the common people should clearly understand and know that no Nation has ever negotiated for its Flag and Constitution after the Peace Settlement, and one needs to understand that it will be unfeasible to negotiate further for our rights to self-determination democratically when our Naga National Flag and Constitution is compromised by the present peace talks. It is also important for the Nagas to remember that it took years to come around to creating a Framework Agreement and to reach the present stage of negotiation because our leaders never compromised on the idea of sovereignty (Naga National Flag and Constitution), otherwise the Indo-Naga strife could have ended within a few years simply by accepting some economic packages or integration of Naga people under the Constitution of India. Our Naga national workers have had peace talks for the last 22 years, and we should be ready to continue to support the peace talks for another 22 years if the present talks could not bring about an honorable Naga Political Solution.

Independence message by Adinno Phizo-

Independence message by Adinno Phizo-

I send my warmest greet-ings to our people on the 60th Anniversary of the Naga representatives’ historic declaration to the world on 14 August 1947 that Nagaland will stay independent, a day ahead of the British India independence granted by Great Britain.

Sixty years on, despite unremitting Indian occupation army militarised tyranny since 1954, the Federal Republic of Nagaland is very much alive. For where our nation is today, we thank the Almighty God for sustaining our people to stand on own’s ground. We will always remember our patriots who sacrificed their lives in defending our freedom. The Government of India (GoI) senseless policy to colonise Nagaland has no place in modern world.

My generation witnessed momentous political upheaval across the world in the aftermath of World War ll. At that juncture, the Naga communities had no common purpose. But unlike neighbouring British India and Burma, the sovereignty of Naga territory was never conceded to foreigners. It stayed the same during the former British empire.

In the 19th century, the British invaders met fierce resistance from the Angami Naga villages that started in January 1832 till 22 November 1879. To end the war, the British entered into an unwritten peace understanding with the dominant Khonoma village on 27 March 1880. The basis of the understanding unequivocally bound the British that on the day the British decide to go back home, the Naga territory were to be left alone.

By any reckoning, the Naga people neither share a common history nor ancestry with the people of India. Nonetheless, in the interest of future good neighbourly relation, the Naga community representatives led by A.Z.Phizo reached out the emerging Indian leaders, namely, Mahatma Gandhi, M.A.Jinnah, Gopinath Bordoloi, C.Rajagopala-chari, Gen K.M.Cariappa, Sri Prakasa, etc., in friendship to promote understanding and mutual respect prior to British India gaining its independence as well as after the birth of modern India. Not surprisingly, none of the Indian leaders the Naga delegations met expressed any reservation or opposition to Nagaland’s independence at any point in the series of talk. That said, prior to independence, incredibly the nascent Constituent Assembly of India led by Gopinath Bordoloi arrived in Kohima to sound out the Naga National Council (NNC) with an ‘offer’ to join the Union of India and stayed from 19 to 21 May 1947. The ‘offer’ was politely but categorically rejected.

In keeping with Naga democratic tradition, NNC conducted a landmark voluntary Naga plebiscite on 16 May 1951, to determine the wishes of the Naga people on their political aspirations to be a nation. Against all the odds, the resounding verdict of 99.00 per cent Naga people in favour of a single national identity and unequivocal affirmation of the earlier declaration of independence in August 1947, uplifted a whole generation with much optimism for the future. Thenceforth, the Naga people immutably entrusted the NNC with the national mandate to uphold Nagaland sovereignty.

The President of NNC, A.Z.Phizo, next turned his attention to the then “Unadministered Areas” Free Nagas. He toured the Regions extensively and got the consent of their leaders for a federal union to be duly enshrined in Naga Constitution. On the basis of the Naga Federal Constitution, henceforth, the Yehzabo of Nagaland, the Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN) was established on 22 March 1956 empowered with legal authority.

In total reversal to Mahatma Gandhi’s word that India will never use force against Nagaland and respect Nagaland independence, given to NNC representatives on 19 July 1947 during a visit to Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, gave order to his Indian army to invade Nagaland in 1954. Ever since, the GoI flagrantly pursue with no signs of relenting, the annexation of peaceful and beautiful Federal Republic of Nagaland.

The 53 years (1954 – 2007) unresolved conflict between by any standard unequal Nagaland and India, couldn’t have done the Indian leaders reputation much good other than a laughing-stock. Whether Delhi care or not, trampling on Nagaland sovereignty on false ground, not to mention aiding and abetting a proxy militia gang, will eventually collapse because of inherent contradiction. India may find the only availble exit strategy is to quit Nagaland at the earliest ostensibly with good grace.

It is clearly a fallacy to refer Indian aggression against Nagaland as the “vexed Naga problem”. The core issue between the two nations is simply the total withdrawal of the Indian occupation army and its camp followers from Nagaland immediately. There can be no excuse for India to concoct imagined fear to prolong the occupation of Nagaland.

From the outset, Nagaland did not seek or demand any favour from India. The Naga stand always has been Nagaland belong to the Naga people. Let no one doubt the resolve of the Naga nation to uphold the Yehzabo of Nagaland.

On this 60th Anniversary of Naga Independence Declaratrion day, I call upon our people to promote peace, understanding as good Naga and pursue national unity towards a common purpose.


May God bless Nagaland. Urra Uvie

Adinno Phizo, president,

Naga National Council,



Message by Kedahge, Gen. (Retd) Viyalie Metha, FGN-

Message by Kedahge, Gen. (Retd) Viyalie Metha, FGN-

Dear Countrymen,

I send my warmest greet-ings to you all on the oc-casion of the sixtieth anniversary of historic Naga independence declared sixty years ago on this day, in 1947. I am once again privileged to take this opportunity to praise God Almighty on behalf of the Naga people. At the same time, I call upon each and every Naga citizen to celebrate our historic national day in appropriate manner with due humility towards God for His unceasing love and care through out the generations.

As we celebrate our great National Day, we remember the founding fathers of our nation who initiated and moulded the Naga Nation. We also remember the good deeds and sacrifices of our predecessors and ancestors, many of whose sufferings were known only to God. But their dedication and prayer in silence sustained our nation. They are the unsung patriots and true national heroes to whom we owe our gratitude. At the same time I express my gratitude and thanks to the present leaders and national workers for their continued sacrifice and steadfastly upholding our national right to this day.

As we arrive at a new mile-stone of our national history, let us look back to the facts that Nagas declared their independence on the 14th August 1947 before India attains its independence from the British. It is a fact that we conducted a plebiscite in 1951 and confirmed that declaration to remain independent. It is also a fact that we established our national government on 22nd March 1956 where by our people took oath of allegiance to the Yehzabo of the Federal Government of Nagaland. It is also a fact that Naga people made the Lakhuti Resolution which still stands to judge those who violate the Yehzabo of Nagaland.

And that, ever since our people came together to live a stronger national life, India began to invade our land, occupied our land by force and has been trying to destroy our tradition and fabric of our social and cultural life with the power of money and armed forces. In course of which countless futile exercises were perpetrated on Naga people, one latest of such kind was by hoodwinking a number of self seeking Naga acquired educationists along with few pseudo nationalists and renegades trying to mislead our people under the cover of holding stage managed so-called peace talk with India has once again failed to impress the reasonable thinking Nagas.

Even as India continued its unremitting militarized tyranny in Nagaland and tried to replace the national institution-Naga National Council (NNC) and our legitimate government, the Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN), with imposters and helping the self trumpeting heroes to replace the true national heroes, on the other hand India supports the terrorist groups to terrorize with intent to subdue the Naga people into submission.

Let us be very clear about our case with India. India invaded Nagaland, therefore it is a case of invasion and so it is war. Nagas fought the war with India in defense of their own country for a long time. However the war was brought to a halt in 1964 with the signing of the international Cease-Fire Agreement between the two nations. Accordingly Nagas kept their words and the cease-fire is honored till today even though India unilaterally abrogated and violated the agreement since 1972 to resume its oppressive agenda upon Nagaland.

God gave us Nagaland. And our forefathers laid our national foundation so firm that no power can destroy or take away our rights. It is for us to live and enjoy the fruits of the heritage that was handed down to us through our forefathers. And we who are living today, we have our responsibility to protect, preserve and nature our heritage, the envy of all.

We are in Nagaland, it is our country and we are not going to be threatened into submission. Any Naga who believes that it is not God but Hindu who can save him is neither a real Naga nor a Christian Naga as said by A.Z. Phizo father of Naga Nation.

The Naga National Council and the Federal Government of Nagaland had successfully celebrated the Golden Jubilees in 1997 at Kohima and 2006 at Chedema respectively. And today as we celebrate our nation’s historic day, I call upon every bona-fide Naga citizen to decease from repeating any foolishness but be awakened and let the past pass. Let us give a chance to good deeds for our nation. Time has come for Nagas to speak out in one voice with one purpose. For our task ahead every single Naga is needed to take part let no one be left behind.

By tradition Naga people are known for their honesty and integrity and we shall live up to the expectation with our mission to maintain sanity if that is humanly possible to live in harmony with our fellow men and be of service to others at all time and with the objective to be a man among men and to be a nation among nations. Those were the teachings of our forefathers which we shall do our best to maintain.

With the brief reminiscence of our predecessors, I wish you all be blessed by God whom I beseech for His continued blessings.



Kedahge, Gen. (Retd) Viyalie Metha, FGN