Pangsha Range Council slam construction of trench along Intl border

Pangsha Range Council (PRC) under Tuensang district has expressed strong condemnation against destruction of environment by the “felonious act” of both the governments of India and Myanmar of construction the ongoing trench at the International Trade Centre (ITS, Dan) that seeks to divide the same Khiamniungan Nagas who find themselves on both sides of the international border.
PRC pointed out that the construction of the trench dividing Khiamniungans was being done by cutting of forests belonging to the indigenous people besides destroying the water pipeline connection in addition to “merciless act towards the people of Wolam(Pangsha).
While condemning the Indian and Myanmar governments for the inhuman act, the PRC reiterated its belief in peaceful environment and freedom without separation of the tribe by the trench.
PRC said Khiamniungans have always lived as one community but after British colonialism, an imaginary line was drawn between India and Myanmar where blood relations found themselves separated by the trench.
In conclusion, PRC has reiterated that the community will not be divided by the imaginary line and would not have any biased feelings just because of the “egoistic motive” of those involved in construction of the dividing trench.

No giving up on sovereignty, integration: Muivah

NSCN (I-M) ato kilonser Th. Muivah has affirmed that there was no question of giving up Naga sovereignty and integration issue.
Maintaining that NSCN (I-M) would never give up both issues, he said there were “some people” who were trying to create situations in a very “treacherous” manner by spreading “meaningless propagandas”.
Addressing hundreds of Nagas from Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar (Burma), who joined the celebration of 69th “Naga Independence” Friday at NSCN (I-M)’s council headquarters, Hebron, Th. Muivah assured the Nagas that the talk was inclusive of “our sovereign right and integration”. No force could stop the Nagas from exercising their rights, he added.

During several rounds of talks between government of India and NSCN (I-M), Muivah said the group had categorically pointed out that Nagas have been kept divided by the external forces and not by Nagas themselves and that they (Nagas) have every right to be integrated into one.

“Nagas have every right to be one, to live as one under our own administration, this right can never be questioned by anyone…we are standing for integration at any cost, we have to work it out” said Muivah.
Time and again, Muivah said NSCN (I-M) have told government of India that whenever any problem arise between Nagas and the “neighbouring people”, government of India attempt to “please others” at the expense of the Nagas, which, he said was an “insult” to the Nagas.

Muivah said NSCN (I-M) have been maintaining that without integration there would be no solution whatsoever and that if government of India wanted to solve Naga issue it should honour integration of the Nagas.
After many rounds of talks, he said government of India also understood the “unique history and unique situation” of the Nagas and agreed to find out a way to “work out” for integration as there were “some practical difficulties”.
Stating that Nagas today want to understand their neighbours and respect their rights, he said likewise the neighbours should also respect the rights of the Nagas as it was the “only way to understand each other”.
On sovereignty, Muivah said that Nagas would never give up their sovereign rights and would not choose to be under the Indians by ignoring their history.

He said Nagas and India have come to understand each other and for which they have recently signed a “framework agreement” respecting the wishes of people for sharing the sovereign power as defined in the competencies.
Earlier, in his key note address, Muivah highlighted the political talks and the recently signed Naga Peace Accord. He reiterated that time has come for the Nagas to “come together and understand each other”.

Muivah said if Nagas failed to grab the opportunity this time it would be a loss for the Nagas. He once again called upon other NPGs/ factions to understand each other regardless of the past and work together for a solution for the best of the Nagas. A presidential address of NSCN (I-M) president Isak Chishi Swu was read out by kilo kilonser Rh. Raising.

Earlier, messages were delivered by Naga Hoho vice president, Eastern Nagaland People’s Organisaiton president and short speeches by United Naga Council president, Zeliangrong Baudi NC Hills, Assam president, Arunachal Chief Council, Tirap and Changlang districts, Eastern Naga Students’ Association (Burma) president and founder and advisor GBs Federation, Nagaland T.L.Angami.

The chief guest, Th. Muivah also hosted the Naga national flag which was followed by parade GFTHQ, Naga army. The gathering was also enthralled by Lotha Sentahn cultural troupe, Dimapur with a folkdance, Chakhesang Patriotic folksong by Diphupar and a cultural presentation by Dimasa Bamunpukhuri.

Invocation was said by Rev. Vitovi (CNC), silent prayer in remembrance of martyrs was led by general secretary CNC Rev. Seksim Kasar, vote of thanks by convenor organizing committee V. Horam and benediction by CHQ Church Hebron Pastor Rev. Joseph Ruivah. Nagaland Post

Nagaland govt organised ‘consultation’ make organisations wary


Morung Express News
Dimapur | August 2

Two days after the Chief Minister of Nagaland declared that an NLA resolution passed on the Naga political issue has been “unanimously endorsed” by the Naga civil society, some organisations claimed that they had not signed their nod to the resolution.

“We are not a signatory to the NLA resolution,” stated the Sumi Hoho, alongside the Western Sumi Hoho today. The 9th session of the current Nagaland Legislative Assembly passed a 5-point resolution on the Naga political issue on July 27. On July 31, the Nagaland Legislators’ Forum (NLF) brought it to Naga civil society organisations for “consultation.” However, they were “unexpectedly” asked to “endorse” the resolution.

“It is not that we are against the points but we cannot immediately take a decision on such matters without consensus from our people,” said representatives of the SH and WSH. “We were put in an awkward situation.” For them, it was important to have stated that any solution should be “inclusive” of all political groups, with consultations going “down to the roots.”

The Forum for Naga Reconciliation (FNR) did not endorse the resolution either as its “role is to facilitate reconciliation and it is up to the tribal hohos to endorse such a resolution, or not,” said a representative of the FNR.

Civil society members present at the meeting on July 31 noted that as in a consultation, there was no “back-and-forth” of opinion—time was given to tribal hoho leaders to speak, after which the resolution was introduced and was asked to be “endorsed” by a show of hands without taking note of opinions expressed.

The Eastern Naga Peoples’ Organisation (ENPO), and its affiliates, for instance, stood by their stance of “unity before solution,” among other things, but this was not introduced into the resolution nor made a mention of (ENPO gave its endorsement to the resolution nonetheless). Some expressed how the resolution was not shown to them, nor the content discussed.

No actual consultation happened, thus, bringing to question why such a resolution was passed, or needed to be endorsed after it was passed in the Assembly. As is usually the case with government “consultations,” a pre decided agenda with an unclear motive was brought to the table for approval within two hours.

“Do they represent the Government of India or the NSCN (IM)?” asked an observer, further wondering “who will they submit these resolutions to?” The points made in the resolution have been reiterated before by Naga civil bodies separately and independently.

“Having taken oath under the constitution of India, making a resolution on the Naga political issue is crossing the line,” noted a leader present at the meeting. If they wanted to play the role of “facilitator” to the Indo-Naga talks, there are “other ways” to do so, he said, finding this “taking of consent” business a “bit confusing.” This made some organisations wary. The next day, they were even more confused by the Chief Minister’s statement in the newspaper claiming ‘unanimous endorsement.’ No NGO was present at the press conference when this was declared.

Similar resolutions on the Naga political issue have been adopted by past governments in Nagaland. The reiteration of this resolution, however, has made sceptics out of organisations that worry that such “consultations” will be used as “final consent” to a settlement whose modalities remain largely unknown to the people. The resolution was passed soon after the arrival of the Parliamentary Working Committee on the Naga Political Issue of the Nagaland State Government from Delhi. The NLF claims that the consultation is part of a continuing dialogue on the Indo-Naga peace process that would bring on board Naga people from outside Nagaland as well.

Conversation With Mr. Khaplang

By: Thomas | NNC Member.

After eight years of NSCN formation, Mr. Khaplang realized the wrong policy of Muivah and hence decided to apart from him, which led the NSCN split into two factions in 1988. Soon as the split took place among them, Mr. Khaplang declared he stands for unity and solidarity of Nagaland and announced that he will welcome Naga national leaders, public leaders, Church leaders and student leaders who would like to talk with him for national unity and reconciliation.

I took his declaration as a good gesture and opportunity for meeting him to talk for national unity and thus boldly decided to go to meet him. I started from Kohima on 27th November, 1990, along with two other NNC Central Committee Members namely Messrs Ku-o Angami and I. Toshi Ao. We reached the NSCN-K’s Council Headquarters (CHQ) Thingpa, Heimi Region on 6th January 1991. I take Mr. Khaplang as my own elder brother since we are from the same Heimi Region and our discussion was frankly as brothers.

I suggested him to break the barrier which prevents us to stop killings and reunification by denouncing the formation of NSCN as wrong. To form the socialist government was purely the idea and policy of Muivah but not yours, and you have the right to declare the formation of NSCN was wrong.

I felt regretted for Mr. Khaplang blatantly rejected my suggestion, saying: do you think that I was used by Muivah pinching on my ear? As we have no sustainable understanding for national unity, we insisted him and his colleagues to have peace among us (between NNC/FGN and Khaplang group), to which they agreed and signed for peace on 10th January 1991 and we returned back on January 12, 1991.

After ten years, that was in 2000: I went to meet him (Khaplang) again and reached at his Laa Hong CHQ on September 18. I told him; I could reach you after ten years taking the grave risk of my life, for I don’t want the killing among the Nagas and take the risk of my life in the interest of national unity. Since 1991, we could maintain peace among us, and through which we could save many lives. Again today, if we could take another positive step in the interest of peace and reconciliation, we will save many lives again. Unless you denounce the NSCN and relinquish it, there is no way to stop the killings. You may intensively fight against IM group but you can’t overpower them and neither can IM group do to you. But only losing of more lives will be counted sad fully as the result of fighting in between you (IM and K groups). You know the fact by now that Muivah and Isak have politically failed. Their failure is yours as well. Because, even if you are in two different groups, but are in the same NSCN. But if you think, you have optimistic to achieve our cherish goal, please tell me, I’ll absolutely support you and follow you. But he told me nothing. And then I asked him, why then you don’t want to rejoin the NNC/FGN again? What is the reason? Please tell me frankly.

He said; I have three reasons: “the first, I cannot accept the observing Nagaland Independence Day by the NNC. Because the declaration of independence in 1947 was, the Nagas who were under the British colonial rule declared themselves freed from the British colonial rule. As we are free Nagas, we will not accept it. We will observe only the day, our independent and sovereignty is recognized by the world. Secondly, I do not accept calling to rejoining the FGN, for the FGN was formed without participation of free Nagas but only the Nagas who were once under the British rule. Thirdly, I do not accept, the Naga country name “Nagaland”, that is only the name referred to the present so-called Nagaland State. I prefer to have our country name as “United Nagaland”.

My explanations on his points were: that the Nagas in fact did not need to declare independence in those days because we all were free and independent people, but our leaders had done it in order to safeguard the sovereignty of Nagaland in those days of changing world so that no nation could challenge us in the future. To become the British subject, we have no treaty and agreement with the British, and therefore the British have no point to declare granting independent to Nagaland and neither did the Nagas need to declare that they were freed from the British colonial rule. We all were free people and yet, the intention of our leaders to announce our age-old independence to the outside world was only to let the world know the Nagas will remain independent as in ancient time. But not as we were freed from the British rule.

On the Second point: It was explained that the FGN was formed not only by the Nagas who were under the British occupation but including free Nagas from the North-east such as Konyak, Khiamniungan, Chang, Sangtam, Yimchunger and Phom. Among free Nagas, only Heimi and Somra Nagas did not participate due to lack of information and communication.

On the third point: I told him; according to Nagaland Yehzabo (Constitution), Nagaland is comprised of all territories inhabited by the Nagas. Our country name “Ngaland” was given by the NNC leaders when the Naga National Council was formed on 2nd February 1946, and the same was approved by the Tatar Hoho (Parliament) on March 22, 1956, when the Federal Government of Nagaland was duly formed. The name of Indian puppet state was also given as Nagaland in 1960 by the leaders of so-called Naga People’s Convention. It is therefore, name of Nagaland is not only referred to Indian puppet state but all the Naga territories.

And I continued, saying; if you principally accept my suggestion to work for national reconciliation, I will be staying with you here and take time to make Heimi and Koyank national workers understand on our national affairs. When they have fully understood, we can convene a public general meeting in and around Konyak Region and from there we have to declare the NSCN-K group has formally rejoined the NNC/FGN. This is the only way that we can stop killing among the Nagas and brings national unity once again. But Khaplang showed no sign to agree with my suggestion and I returned back to Kohima again.

Later after three years, I reached to his Laa Hong CHQ once again on January 9, 2003. This time our discussion was the most animated and vituperative. When I started to suggest him again to work for national unity by denouncing the NSCN; he angrily responded me saying: “why are you always urging me to rejoin the NNC? What had the NNC done? If the NNC has the way to achieve our national goal, why Phizo has failed to do it? Why Ms. Adinno could not do it? Why are you always saying that only the NNC has the right to tell Naga national history? No! we all have the right to tell our history”.

I responded him saying: if the NNC did not sow the seeds of Naga nationalism, today you and I will not be here to work for the Naga nation, and we will have no history. The NNC has done a lot for the Naga nation and today what we talk about our national history are only the records of the NNC. For the failure, you talk about is not only to be blamed Phizo or Adinno. As Phizo was sent to abroad by our people, he has done his duty to inform the outside world of the Naga national right, the suffering and plight of the Nagas in the hands of India. His efforts captured world opinion to support the Naga cause presenting before the U.N. However, by the news that Naga People’s Convention had accepted statehood under the Indian Constitution hampered his work in 1960s. Again in 1968, the formation of revolutionary government made his work suffered a severe setback again, and moreover the formation of NSCN did the same to his achievement. The Nagas have no unison voice to support Phizo and his daughter Adinno Phizo and neither did extend financial support to them. Then how can they do to make achievement. Even if you were there, you can’t do so.

You are right to say all Nagas can tell the Naga national history, but my point of view is; even if you or Muivah and Isak tell or write the history of the NNC/Naga nation, it won’t become as a history of the NSCN and neither can use it by the NSCN leaders as a history of the NSCN. This fact already proved by Isak and Muivah that without historical background they have no alternative to achieve Naga national goal. Because when they moved away from the NNC, they also moved away from the history and mandate of the people. The history and mandate of the people are not private properties to be taken away or used as one’s own will, but can be used them within the platform of the NNC, since the history is written and mandate is given on the platform of the NNC. This truth Muivah and Isak firmly said in 1976 that “without the NNC there is no short cut way to achieve our national goal”.

However, in 1980, they reversed their stand, stating; “It is arms and arms again that will save our nation and ensure freedom to the people” and hence started a new history in 1980. But they have failed to achieve their expected goal through arms struggle. We are obligated to fight for our national objective is solely based on truth and historical facts. For this reason I urge you to rejoin the NNC. The NNC belongs to all Nagas and rejoining the NNC doesn’t mean surrendering to the NNC. Please don’t compare our national affairs with mere party politics. The politicians of political party are playing politics to form their own party government, and they can dissolve their parties if necessary in the interest of jointly forming a new party whatever the name they agreed upon. But we can’t do the same way, because we are building our nation and striving to solve the conflict with the aggressors by addressing our history. After the problem is solved with the aggressors, then only party politics will be followed. But for now, we should not divert our nationalism into petty party politics or dilute it with other issues or political ideology.

You are a renowned leader among our Heimi people, your life should not be ended in bad record. Our lives are in the hands of God and we don’t know when our lives will be taken away by our Lord God. The killing among the Nagas started in our time and it should not be handed down to the younger generation without solving it. This is needed to solve by you before you die in the larger interest of our people and for the sake of your good record as well. The enemy is playing delaying tactics to solve the conflict with the Nagas. And as long as we are divided we can do nothing to achieve our national goal in our life time, instead we will be adding to succeeding the enemy’s policy.

As you asked me the question “what the NNC has done?”; so also some Nagas will ask you, what the NSCN has done? What will be your answer? He said nothing. I continued saying; as soon as you have formed the NSCN; you, the NSCN crushed down Khiamniungan Region in 1980, where the NSCN killed more than 500 Khiamniungan people, and then in 1984-85, the NSCN waged war against Lainong Nagas and there too the NSCN killed more than 800 Lainongs and razed down their villages into ashes. In 1988, the NSCN split into two factions, and now the two factions are joining hands with the enemies and fighting against each other. When the Indian elections are conducted the two NSCN factions are intentionally and diligently involving in the Indian elections. By forcefully they are collecting money from the Naga people and building their luxurious lives. All these are not that the NSCN has done? He said; some of Western Naga leaders have been doing as what you said.

The fighting among the NSCN factions is happening according to prophetic words which told you in 1984 through the boy Kummo Heimi in Eastern Nagaland and also Evangelist Athui Zeliang from Western Nagaland. The boy told you the words emanated by the Holy Spirit, that you should relinquish the NSCN setup and rejoins the NNC. If you do not obey Me, more killings will be happened among yourselves. On this Mr. Khaplang said: yes, we failed to obey the words of the Holy Spirit. We were told to summon FGN leaders including President Zashei Huire from Western side and have a meeting hosting a white flag on the hill top between Tsünkhao and Kingphu villages and declare reuniting with the NNC in the spirit of forgive and forget. He narrated it with regretfully. But no action was followed up accordingly.

And lastly, I gave another suggestion to form a committee from his group comprising five or seven members. The NNC/FGN has a committee and the two committees should have continuous and intensive talk for reconciliation. I could come to you once after ten years or five years, we therefore should have continuous talk through our committees in order to build up well understanding for reconciliation. On this my suggestion, he said; I have Council of Kilonsers (Ministers) and should have to discuss with them for your suggestion. But till date he has done nothing for the reconciliation. Now it is running more than ten years again.

Integration of Naga Area of Manipur with the state of Nagaland

Memorandum to Shrimati Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India from the Naga Integration committee, Manipur,Imphal.

The Prime Minister,
Government of India,
New Delhi.

Subject:- Integration of Naga Area of Manipur with the state of Nagaland.

We,the undersigned members,as authorised by the Naga Integration committee,Manipur,through their resolution passed at Imphal on 8th July,1968 to meet you,have the honour to lay down the following facts for your consideration and early implementation.


We will freely quote from Alexander Mackanzie’s “History of the Relation of the Government with the Hill Tribes of the North-East frontier of Bengal.”

On page 150 of the said history it runs as:

“In 1823 the British Government opened communications with Gumbheer Singh,one of the members of the Manipur Royal family; upon which 500 Manipuris under his command were taken into the pay of the British Government, and cooperated with British troops in driving the Burmese out of Cachar. In 1825 this force was increased to 2000 men,and placed under the command of Captain Grant,it was denominated the Manipur Levy, and was paid,accoutred and supplied with ammunition by the British Government. Subsequently by the Ava Treaty of 1826,Gumbheer Singh was recognized as Rajah of Manipur, though without any corresponding obligation so far as the British Government as concerned. The language of the Treaty was as follows: “With regard to Manipur, it is stipulated that, should Gumbheer Singh desire to return to that country, he shall be recognized by the King of Ava as Rajah thereof.” Shortly afterwards the British Government discontinued the payment of the Manipur Levy,but still furnished ammunition for the reduction of refractory Hill tribes; and further supplied 3000 muskets and sets of accoutrements.”

As stated on page 107 and 122, it is now an established fact that the boundary of Manipur was demarcated in 1841-42 and slight revision was made in 1872.

It is no wonder that the then British Government in order to maintain peace and tranquility in their territory in Assam,recognized the De facto authority of Manipur over certain areas in this part of the hills. Slowly the erstwhile Naga Hills here tagged on with Assam. They did the same by giving away certain portion of Hills to Burma for which we have no say.

On page 103 it runs as: 
“When in 1835 our hill villages in North-Cachar were found to be constantly suffering from the exactions and raids, the Government conceived that the duty of controlling the hostile Nagas devolved jointly upon Tularam and the Manipur state, as the two powers holding jurisdiction over at least some portion of the Naga-Hills. It was proposed, therefore, that a line of posts to protect our subjects should be established at Somkhor and along the neighbouring Naga frontier. Tularam protested earnestly that he had no control over the Nagas or any means of checking their raids, while Manipur,whose only system of control consisted in raids as Savage as those of the Nagas themselves.”

On page 158 of the History it runs as: “The Superintendent of Cachar considered that the peace of Manipur and of the Eastern Frontier required that an European officer should reside at Imphal. The capital is 183 miles from Cachar,from which it is separated by seven ranges of hills varying from 2000 to 7000 feet and four large rivers unbridged. Should the political Agent be withdrawn, the wild and savage tribes of Nagas and Kookis, surrounding the valley of Manipur, would be in arms.”
The foregoing paragraphs prove without an iota of doubt that the Nagas remained as Independent as they were in spite of any De facto recognition of authority so far.

Mr. Pemverton’s History corroborates Mr. Alexander MacKenzie’s book quoted in the foregoing paragraphs.
At long last,Manipur was annexed to the British Empire in 1891 and a new chapter in the administration under the arbitrary rule of the Raja. Consequently,the Kuki uprising took place in 1929-20. A few Chiefs were deported to the Andaman Island for life imprisonment. And,since 1920,the Hill administration was detached from the rule of the then Raja and was run by the President,Manipur state Durbar, who was always an European officer of the Raja till the withdrawal of the Paramountcy in 1947.
Again in 1932 a political upheaval convulsed Manipur state, led by Jadonang,a Rongmei Naga of Tamenglong subdivision against the then regime and the British Government. He was captured and hanged while his lieutenant sister, Gaidelie ,was sentenced to undergo life imprisonment. At long last,she was released by our independent Government and decorated by Panditji with the title of ‘Rani’.

In May 1947 the Manipur Constitution was drafted in which, on page 12,the Hill leaders secured incorporation of a clause as:

“The Principle of equality and freedom as applied to all without discrimination of caste, creed and race shall include the right of any section of the Hill people to secede at the end of the five year period, should conditions within the Constitution not be satisfactory.”
On page 10 as,”Finally the committed record that the provisions agreed to in this resolutions of the community represented on the committee reserve the right of complete freedom of action at the end of five year period irrespective of any view expressed in this resolution.”

The integrated Manipur Administration of Hills and valley started functioning on 15th August, 1947 with high handedness and, therefore, the Mao Nagas, in particular, launched a ‘No-Tax’ campaign against the then Government and demanded Naga areas to be merged with Assam as their brethren were already there then. Firing took place at Mao on 27thOctober, 1949,Government of India paid Rs. 20,000/- to the deceased and wounded families, while Shri Prakash,the then Governor of Assam,was the moving spirit behind the payment of the compensation.

The demand for merger with Assam continued unabated and memoranda were submitted to the Prime Minister in 1953 and to the Home Minister, Mr.Pantji,with copy to the then Chief Minister, Assam,Mr Medhi,during Home Minister’s visit to Manipur in 1955. Quote a few memoranda were submitted to the Governor of Assam, Mr. Daulatram,during his official visit to Manipur. We are fortunate in having many of our leaders alive to whom these memoranda were submitted.

In 1960,as a result of an agreement entered into by the Naga peoples’ Convention with the Government of India, the Naga Hills Tuensang Area District of Assam was given statehood and the state of Nagaland was formed.

The Naga areas of Manipur were,however, not included as part of Nagaland. the Naga tribes of Manipur have, from time immemorial, been occupying compact areas immediately contiguous to the present Nagaland state. The total area is about 6000sq miles and population about 2 lakhs. Wherever they are and under whatever administrative setup they may come, Nagas are homogenous people, having distinct culture, Customs,usages,tradition and literature It is this sense of oneness that constitutes the core of the move for integration of Nagas as a whole. It is needless to recount the submission of memoranda to bring Nagas under one administrative setup.

The Nagaland Nationalist Organization of Nagaland submitted a memorandum, with appendices, in June,1968 to Prime Minister. The Naga Integration committee of Manipur submitted to the President, A.I.C.C,during his visit to Manipur on 15th June, 1968,a memorandum, enclosing copies of those submitted previously by different Naga Organization of Manipur to the Government on different occasions. A memorandum was submitted to the Prime Minister in April, 1968 as well.

The upsurge of the Naga political aspirations is mounting day by day and is now being accelerated by the Organizations aforesaid. Quite a large number of educated young men from Manipur joined the under ground Movement, as they found not being able to secure their political aspirations in the last two decades as in other parts of India, viz, vivisection of Punjab, Bombay and Madras states. Had the Central leaders taken the initiative by themselves directly, the present tragedy in Nagaland could have been averted, because the Naga’s Nine-point Agreement with Sir Akbar Hydari was to remain with India and not outside it. Another unhappy incident, viz. boycott of Panditji’s address to Nagas at Kohima in 1953,with a foreign dignitary Mr. U Nu,the premier of Burma, could have also been averted, had the central leaders had a direct hand in the problem of the Eastern Zone. The same is true with the present Government of Manipur and, therefore, we must say to the central Government and leaders to be aware of it.

It may not be out of place to mention here, in brief the mal administration and exploitation carried on by the Government of Manipur in regard to Hill people. The 30% reservation of Cadre III and IV services are never adhered to, since all the Head of Departments are plain Meiteis. Since 1964,no tribal candidates have been selected for interview with the M.P.S.C. for Class II post in spite of the availability of qualified hands. Even for those who are in service, there is practically no security and safeguard, because all sorts of attempts are made to tarnish their service records.The Manipur Government grudge in spending out of the normal budget allotment for Hill areas, except the New Cachar Road which is likely to be a lifeline of the Manipur valley. The benefit accruing to the Hill people is only through the Tribal Welfare Fund which is roughly Rupees 24lakhs annually. Though the declared Government policy is not to divert this fund towards any other purpose except the development of Manipur Hill areas, this is not adhered to by the Manipur Government. One and a half lakhs of Rupees are expended annually towards meeting the expenditure on the Adim Jati Technical institute, Imphal, which is a general institute for all communities. A hostel for the Moirang High School was constructed five years ago out of this Fund in the name of the Hill tribes but it is not actually meant for them. Similarly, in the field of Education, while it is a general practice to impart education upon primary level in mother tongue, the Naga tribes of Manipur have no such facility. Hardly any state scholarship is being awarded to tribal students for post-matric and postgraduate studies.

To mention a few other excesses, indiscriminate extension of Indian Forest Act to the Hill areas of Manipur, the Acquisition of the Chief’s Right Act and the attempt to extend the Manipur Land Revenue Act to the Hill areas have threatened the very existence of the Naga Tribes of Manipur.

Our demand is based on human desires and aspirations than on these considerations. It was in keeping with the human desires and aspirations that the Naga Peoples’ Convention had entered into an agreement with the Government of India, known as the Sixteen-Point Agreement, wherein Clause 13 runs as under:-

13. Consolidation of contiguous Naga areas:
The delegation wished the following to be placed on record:-
The Naga leaders expressed the view that other Nagas inhabiting contiguous areas should be enabled to join the New State. It was pointed out to them on behalf of the Government of India that Articles 3 & 4 of the Constitution provided for increasing the areas of any state but that it was not possible for the Government of India to make any commitment in this regard at this stage.”

The 6th Clause of the Nine-Point Agreement of 1947 between Akbar Hydari and the Nagas runs as:
“To bring under one unified administrative unit as far as possible all Nagas. All the areas so included will be within the scope of the present proposed Agreement.”

Further, the following was passed at the 5th General session of the N.N.O. in January-February, 1968:

“As per agreement between the Naga leaders and the Government of India, this meeting of the N.N.O. strongly urge the Government of India to immediately integrate all contiguous Naga areas with the State of Nagaland. Further,we appeal to all Nagas,who are residing outside
Nagaland, to work for an early integration for which the state of Nagaland has always kept the doors open. Further this general session expresses its deep appreciation to the initiative taken by the Nagas of Manipur areas towards this end.”

It is high time to bring an immediate solution in this regard. The matters are likely to become uncontrollable with the proposed reorganization of Assam.

We wish to stress that we put in our demand within the framework of the Constitution of India and we believe that we shall sufficiently and concretely demonstrate our loyalty to the Government of India.
In fine, we wish to say that integration of all Nagas within one administrative unit will definitely strengthened the hands of the administration of the state of Nagaland and the solution of the present trouble there would become much easier.

In view of the facts enumerated above, we urge the Government of India to look into the matter regarding integration of Manipur Naga areas with the state of Nagaland in all its seriousness and bring about an early solution thereof. We have very hope that your Excellency, the Prime Minister, would give a very sympathetic consideration to our point of view and meet our just demand.

Yours faithfully,
Naga Integration committee and
President, Tengnuopal Naga Union, Manipur.

General Secretary,
Naga Integration Committee.

General Secretary,
Pomei Progressive Union and
Joint Secretary, N.I.C.

Joint Secretary,
Tankhul Naga Long,Ukhrul.

(N.K. SIM)
General Secretary, Zeliangrong Naga Union, Manipur.
Dated: New Delhi,
the 26th July, 1968.

Copy to:-
1. Shri Y.B. Chavan,
Minister for Home Affairs,
GOI,New Delhi.

2. Shri B.R. Bhagat,
Minister of State External Affairs,
GOI,New Delhi.

3. Shri B.K. Nehru,
Governor of Assam and Nagaland,
Raj Bhavan,Shillong.

4. Shri T.N. Angami,
Chief Minister,Nagaland,
P.O. Kohima.

5. Shri Baleshwar Prasad,
Chief Commissioner,
Manipur, Imphal.

6. Shri M. Koirang Singh,
Chief Minister,
Manipur, Imphal.

Impact of social media while our elections & politics groping in the dark

By Oken Jeet Sandham

Literally, every person on the street has Facebook Account. In other countries and even in major Indian cities, whether cobbler or rickshaw puller or barber or vegetable vender, they mostly have social media accounts, particularly Facebook. Almost every restaurant – whether small or big – has free Internet facilities through Wi-Fi. Everyone coming to the restaurants is normally seen enjoying free Internet facilities through the Wi-Fi services, while enjoying various cuisines. The whole world is virtually at their fingertips.

Over 80% of the world leaders now have their own social media accounts, particularly Facebook. Starting from mere local politicians to Prime Ministers and Presidents, they all have owned their own social media sites. Many Queens and Kings also have joined social media. Most of them used Facebook extensively to promote their missions and charitable works, while those politicians would do their best to propagate their political and social agendas. Millions of Facebook users will also systematically use the social media sites (Facebook) to promote their commercial ventures. Various professionals will use Facebook to promote their professional programs. To a great extent, their purposes are served.

Since the advent of Facebook, the communities of the world are more connected than ever before. The boundaries have virtually disappeared and the world communities become one family. The people don’t wait any important information of any candidates these days; they can easily get it through their Facebook sites. Besides this, the general publics can directly put their questions in their social media sites and even join debates in it.

We have seen how the last American Presidential elections were fought through various social media sites. Barack Obama and his Republican rivals Senator John McCain and later with Mitt Romney virtually had their presidential campaigns organized in the Facebook and it had largely worked to capture the mood of the voters who were also users of Facebook and other social media sites.

The last American Presidential elections had shown to the world that no one could any longer fight without Facebook and other Social media machines. After the American elections were over, numbers of Facebook and other social media users were seen a quantum jump and it still keeps surging.

Every Prime Minister or President of the world would have their Facebook with millions following them. They virtually pitted against each other for their political and electoral battles. They could systematically advance to many areas. Every activity of any Prime Minister or the main Opposition Leader will be instantly uploaded in their Facebook before it goes to any other online publications, forget about Print Media that will come next day only.

In India, we have now witnessed unprecedented use of Facebook and Twitter, etc. during this time’s upcoming 16th Indian Lok Sabha elections by contending candidates and their political parties. They have been constantly uploading news of election campaigns in their respective social media sites. According to report, the social media, particularly Facebook will play a major role in 2014 elections. It said out of 534 constituencies, 160 were identified as High impact zones, 67 were identified as Medium impact zones while the rest were classified as Low impact zones.

It further disclosed that they were categorized on the basis of internet and Facebook users in that particular constituency. On basis of data collected from past year and equating it with current stats, it concluded that the High impact zones will be the major game changer in 2014 elections.

Nadrendra Modi, the BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate has millions of Facebook and Twitter followers. His electioneering news is constantly uploaded in his and his BJP’s Facebook and Twitter sites. Congress Star Campaigner Rahul Gandhi also equally uses the services of the Facebook and Twitter for propagating his electioneering campaigns, while Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh too can’t help but depending on social media like Facebook to put his political agendas and developments, etc.

Though he projected himself very simple, Arvind Kejriwal, former Delhi Chief Minister and leader of AAP, couldn’t progress without depending on social media. He had to convey his thought, ideas and election campaigns through social media in many cases. In fact, the social media plays integral, both to the candidates and the public.

In India, every political party has their social media sites today. They too have used benefits of the sites to the fullest possible manner to advance their political agendas. Massive political propaganda has been created through Facebook and Twitter by every political party and their leader to project that they are the savior of the country. If closely monitored, it appears that they are unlikely to play politics without the services of Facebook and Twitter. What a revolution indeed.

Even in the Region, State Units of various National Political Parties like the BJP, Congress, etc. have opened their own social media sites and played their own games to only strengthen their propaganda machine.

Every media house does have their own various social media sites, so do all the media persons. In fact, some of the national media houses constantly upload every new development in their news portals as well as their Facebook and Twitter. These have happened, over and above their print editions. Even the electronic media like TV Channels, in spite of their live telecast of each and every development, do constantly upload their news in their Facebook and Twitter.

In Nagaland too, number of social media users are seen increasing leaps and bound. There are heated debates taking place on various issues facing them in their social media sites. Facebook has given space for each and every person to share their thoughts, ideas and plights, etc.

Hundreds of users throw their questions in the Facebook daily or hourly with regard to the current Lok Sabha elections as well as Naga political issue. It is interesting to note that while AICC Vice President Rahul Gandhi was addressing a mammoth election rally at Kohima Local Ground on March 27, news of his address was being uploaded in Facebook and Twitter simultaneously. How advance the Social Media of today is? In fact, immediate political debates generated when he raised the controversial points with regard to Naga political issue where he said, “I will not give any promise as your Chief Minister who said he would bring solution to the Naga issue within three months if he was voted to power.”

Before NPF formally lodged its complaint, the actual debates were over within few hours as soon as it was uploaded in the Facebook and Twitter. It went viral.

It is regretted that NPF and NPCC have just opened their Facebook accounts with hardly any following them. Hardly election campaign news is seen uploading in their sites. They should engage their media personnel to work for their social media sites. Nagaland BJP Unit has, however, been maintaining their Facebook site well.

NPF candidate Neiphiu Rio, who is also DAN consensus candidate, has nearly 500 followers, while Congress Candidate KV Pusa’s seemed to have just been opened recently with less than 100 followers. Some of their party functionaries, of course, have their social media accounts opened. This development clearly shows that they are yet to know the value of social media.

Looking at the present scenario, Nagaland political activities are yet to catch up the social media importance. They are still in the dark while others are busy uploading their activities, yet they do not know what is happening in Facebook with their stories. Here is a wakeup call for our political leaders to join the Facebook or else they will be left out. Courtesy: EPN

Nagas need Christian worldview for reconciliation

By: B.Thohii Shuru

The Lenten Agreement signed by the three political groups marks the new chapter for “Naga reconciliation: a journey of common hope”. Symbolically, the timing and the word ‘Lenten’ have meaning to the biblical significance in which the process needs to orient in that direction. A close read up on the Republic Day speeches of the collective leaders of Naga political groups this year show positive commitment to engage in reconciliation for common future. Also reading between the lines one finds a departure from the kind of previous years’ speeches which are, more often than not, intent with hatred and viciously vitriolic content of intolerance indulging in self-exoneration.

In the twists and turns of the history of Naga national movement came the tragedy of the fall to Naga politics of factions, the fall out of dissension, discord, and rebellion within the Naga nationalists, and in consequence of it saw many wrongs committed for which we are seeking redemption today. Fratricidal killing has caused grave dehumanisation of lives and has bogged Naga communities to moral and social disarray. Ills of intra-contradictions, dissension, righteous attitude, and pseudo-Christian attitude prevailing within the Naga communities continue to be the main hurdle for achieving ultimate reconciliation. Therefore, the Naga leaders need to rethink in radically different term about a system that would help restore peace to our broken communities, shattered by past wrongs.
Six years ago, the FNR initiated the bold process of reconciliation to rebuild trust between the Naga leaders and accept the truth of, ‘reconciliation is a political necessity’ for an honourable Naga political solution. The latest efforts of the FNR need serious and sincere engagement from our leaders of Naga political groups, not just paper agreement. So, a valid question to ask is, why should our leaders find it so hard to reconcile each other in the spirit of Christian?

Secular worldview – be it naturalism, eastern pantheism, the new age, post modern secularism, liberation theologies, or a host of others have all failed to offer redemption to world chaos. All these worldview have failed to escape its own contradictions or disastrous implications. But Christian worldview, as studies showed, is accepted as the only alternative that offers redemption to world predicaments. Of the numerous alternatives that are as numerous as the various religions and philosophies of the world, Christianity is accepted as the only alternative that can participate in restorative justice programmes, implement redemptive policies, or be rebuilders of broken communities and broken lives.

Unless we are utopians, we have to accept the fact that we can never have an ideal type of just society. But when bad things happen to societies and individuals, Christianity is said to have been the only alternative that provides hope of redemption. The truth is that, Christian people doing a Christian thing in a Christian way take the lead not only in producing individual transformation, but in reanimating culture, bringing Christian truth to bear in all aspects of our common lives together.
True justice, according to Burnside, involves an ongoing dialectic between the antiseptic and compassionate views, aiming higher to achieve the goal of right relationship. But this dialectic can take place only within the context of what moral philosopher Alisdair MacIntyre calls a ‘tradition of enquiry’. And in Burnside’s view, that tradition is Christianity which sees humanity in relational term – in relationship between God and humans and among humans.

Historically, secular naturalism and biblical theism have been utterly antithetical in viewpoints over different understandings of how government should function to preserve order and promote justice. Philosophers like Rousseau and Voltaire have made a scathing attack on Christianity and its institutions challenging the historic Christian view of original sin and blaming Christian institutions as an oppression that chained men.

The Enlightenment of the eighteenth century that propagates State as the ultimate liberator saw its disastrous implications in world history as such paradoxes as the Reign of Terror in French Revolution’s pursuit of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. We also saw Marx’s influence of economic solution to social ills that led to the gulags and the killing fields in Cambodia under the totalitarian regime of Pol Pot in the twentieth century. The Naga history too is stained with tyranny and blood as witnessed in fratricidal killings and having seen many public leaders got killed. History proves that all revolutionary leaders in one way or other are under the influence of the writings of Rousseau, Voltaire, and Marx and so on.

Utopianism declared God irrelevant to politics and men can achieve a this-worldly redemption through political action, that is, through the seizure and use of power by an enlightened vanguard. This is seen in the political actions of Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, Mao and so on.

Now coming back to my main point in discourse, today the Naga society lives with unhealed wound of many wrongs committed in the past by the Naga political groups. These wrongs were committed in the trunk line of Machiavelli and Hobbes theories that declared the state is paramount to citizen’s life, justifying that any act, even killing if necessary for the cause of the state, is legitimate. Here, I think, is a syndrome of moral ambivalence where Naga nationalist leaders are caught between two moral responsibilities of as the state heads and as Christians. Paradoxically, the Utopian authority of justifying the act of even the worst kind for Naga nation is against the moral restraint of conscience to do no wrong by the fact of being Christian and believing in biblical teaching of sin. Taking one’s life cannot be justified with convenience like ‘God will understand it’. Naga society is suffering today with wounds of hurts and unforgiving attitude for crimes brought about by political action of those in power. Fairly exercise of restraint of moral conscience to do no more wrong by the Naga nationalist leaders to rebuild and restore a rational and just society is obviously absent.

In a predicament like this in Naga context, I believe, our leaders need to embrace Christian restorative justice that is base on restitution or making rights to the extent possible the wrongs done. The reason is that in the context of Naga national movement, God relevance to Naga politics is paramount right from the beginning in against to utopianism that declared God irrelevant to politics. I feel it necessary to quote here some of what our collective leaders’ echoes in their Republic Day speeches this year: “Fifty eight years ago on this Day of the Lord as National Government with a framed Constitution in the name of God Almighty that we were and we are a nation” (NNC), “Nagaland for Christ is a covenant of God with the Nagas”, “When God is happy with NSCN, than there will be an honourable solution. If God be on our side who can be against us” (NSCN/GPRN). These have bearing on how Naga nationalism is founded upon God in centre and a total repose of faith in God for deliverance from political bondage. In the light of the above, the Christian worldview must become the guiding belief to engage in reconciliation.

Historically, Christianity has brought transformation to the Naga societies to give up headhunting – a culture that legitimizes violence involved in head taking. Today’s fratricidal killing among Naga political factions and systematic targeting of public leaders is a sublimated form of Naga primitive headhunting culture. Retributive justice to ‘even the score’ in killing was the legitimate act of headhunting. There is no difference between fratricidal killing and primitive headhunting in the context of expression of human aggression. Initially Naga primitive headhunting was sublimated through restriction imposed by external agent, Christianity.

Nevertheless, that sublimation would not have come to a savage Naga had there not been development of individual transformation from self within. It was Christianity that helped a Naga to transform individually and finally decide that it was morally wrong to kill another for head trophy – the result of the influence of Christian historic teaching of sin. The basic instinct of human aggression and for a Naga too, can never be sublimed totally but the moral restraint of that instinct comes from the teaching of Christianity.

A society that enjoys near ideal type of peaceful and harmonious lives is the one that respect the rule of law and order by the citizens. That natural rule of law and order is dead in Naga societies; it has been reduced to the rule of men, the will of those who holds power which has only compounded evil in Naga society. Restoring that rule of law based on truth is the redemption the Naga societies need today. If there is no truth there is no rule of law. To achieve this objective in the context of the Naga society, no secular views or the applied legal means of reconciliation like in Rwanda would really help the Naga faction groups to reconcile or forgive the wrongs carried out in totalitarian authority by the leaders of all faction groups. It is the biblical view that should really become the means of reconciliation to Naga society because through this means must establish a transcendent authority for the law that would enables the Naga commoners to live in security under the rule of law, which is objectively true. Also, the biblical view must help the Naga Christians to recognise the reality of sin and thus provides a mechanism to restrain it. And it is only the biblical worldview that provides us to account for the wrongs we do, deal with our guilt and provides a way for the human heart to be transformed.

The cries of Naga peoples for reconciliation are loud, and the latest Lenten Agreement is welcome by all civil organisations and individuals alike. Therefore, now our leaders need to listen to the voice of the peoples in general and take it forward to reality, beyond mere agreement in papers.