On Nagas of Nagaland State Political solution

By: Dr.R.B. Thohe Pou

The Naga population in 2011 is about 4 million. And the Nagas live in Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh (North East India) and Myanmar. The Nagas are comprised of various tribes, and the Nagas are culturally, socially and ethnically different from the mainland Indian. Culturally or ethnically, there is not any affinity between the Nagas and the Indian except that the Indian have forcefully invaded the Naga country and occupied in Nagalim since 1956.

How the Nagaland state was formed?
Some of the Nagas of present Nagaland state have forcefully formed the new state of India known as Nagaland state. Now some of the Naga leaders of Nagas of Nagaland want to have a separate Naga political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland only. Do you think that giving Naga Political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland will be easier and more feasible than bringing the Nagas under one administrative unit? The GoI not willing to integrate the Naga inhabited areas under one administrative unit should not be the reason for demanding a separate Naga political for the Nagas in Nagaland only.

The present Nagaland state was allowed to form by GoI without much effort. In fact, it was formed in order to erase the concept of the Naga national movement and to smother the Naga national movement. The GoI treacherously enticed some of the Naga leaders, and eventually formed the present state Nagaland. All the Naga architectures who helped to form the present Nagaland state were alleged to be assassinated by NNC as the Naga national movement cannot compensated in exchange of Nagaland state formation. One should not be too proud and too complacent of having a state like Nagaland under the constitution of India as it was formed to weaken and smother the Naga national movement.

With the formation of Nagaland state, many Nagas in Nagaland are enjoying the fruits of the Nagas (Nagas in Naga land or Nagalim) as the Government of India have been pouring a huge amount of budget EVERY year to Nagaland state to fool the Nagas, and to pull down the Naga national movement. And depending on this easy money from the GoI, many Nagas have gone crazy after money and became lazy unlike their counterpart Nagas who are struggling hard toiling soil with their sweats for their living. It’s very unfortunate and sad that some of the Nagas including the Naga leaders have totally forgotten the purpose of their forefathers’ national movement who have sacrificed their lives for the future Naga generation.

Many Naga people have been observing and crying silently in their heart what were happening recently in the present state Nagaland. And it’s indeed very unfortunate that something is going beyond the state of people mind to continue observing silently. What’s there for the Nagas in present Nagaland state without the Nagas from other parts of the Nagalim? And what’s there for the Nagas in Myanmar or Manipur or any other state without the other Nagas? Do you think that the present Nagas in Nagaland state have become more powerful, popular and bolder without the Nagas from other parts of the Nagas? Do you think the wisdom of some Nagas are taken back by God? Do you think that GoI will pour in more money to Nagaland state if the Nagas in present state of Nagaland demand for a separate Naga political solution?

Some of the Naga leaders from NNC claims to be the sole representative of the Nagas in Nagaland (Nagalim)? And they also claim to be the only Naga National movement which can bring Naga political solution. Do the NNC also endorses the claims of Naga political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland state or do the NNC stands for the whole Nagas?

*What is the main purpose of Naga National movement?*
Is the Naga national movement started by Naga Club and later by the late Phizo – the father of the Naga nation is only for the present state Nagaland state? Even if some of the Naga leaders from the present state Nagaland state are brainwashed by Indian money and other facilities available in the state, and might have forgotten the main purpose of our Naga National movement, anyone can ask any non-Nagas on the purpose of the Naga National movement.

What are the main reasons of some leaders in present state Nagaland who have totally lost their mind, memories and Naga political history from their mind? The main purpose of our National movement is very clear from the beginning till today. And even though some of the Nagas including some of the Naga leaders in present Nagaland state have lost their mind, memories and forgotten the Naga political history, but we should be happy that more than 99% of the Nagas are for our Naga National movement to bring a honourable solution.

*Who recognized the Naga national movement?*
1. The Naga national movement is recognized and supporting by UNPO. The UNPO has recongised Naga as one of the indigenous nation, and give their support for our Nagas rights to self-determination.

2. The Naga International Support Center, Amsterdam, a human rights organization recognized and support the Nagas rights to self-determination. Some of the other Naga factions also trying to connect with NISC to get international support from outside.

3. The Baptist World Baptist Alliance (BWA), also recognized the Naga political problem, and gives their prayer support for Naga reconciliation and early Naga political solution. The Baptist World Alliance (BWA) held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from July 4 to 9 in 2011, affirmed support to the long-protracted Naga issue and with the affirmation, a total of 120 nations federating with BWA would focus to advocate the Naga issue to all corners of the world through prayers.
4. The Indian Government recognized the Naga political problem and the uniqueness of the Naga history, and thus a ceasefire agreement was made to process the Indo-Naga peace-talks.

5. Based on recognition of uniqueness of the Naga history and Naga problem is a political problem, the GOI also made a Framework Agreements on 3rd August 2015.

Then how comes that suddenly some of the Nagas in Nagaland have changed their demand from Naga political movement into Nagaland state political solution? The Nagas outside the present state Nagaland may not have the rights to interfere in state political issue. However, every concern Naga has the rights to interfere in the state political affair when anything that goes against the interest of the Naga national movement. The Naga nationalists were working on to bring all the Nagas (Nagaland, Myanmar, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh) as one nation since 1940s.

*Is the Naga nation only for the Nagas in Nagaland state?* Why some of the Nagas of Nagaland have changed the Naga national movement into Nagaland state movement? Why some of the Nagas of Nagaland have lost their vision and hope? Today, some of the frustrated leaders who believe in “Divided we retain our leadership; united we lost our leadership” are leading some section of the Naga people. And some of the Naga gullible people are following them too. Leadership changes too. There can be misunderstanding, jealousy, hatred and ideological differences within a faction, tribe or nation. And out of frustration, hatred, ideological differences or other reasons – some of the leaders may want to retain their leadership by forming a few faction or organization. But one should not mislead other people to pull down the national movement. And also one should not change the Naga national movement into Nagaland state people movement. Kuknalim

Source: http://morungexpress.com/nagas-nagaland-state-political-solution/

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Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    26 Jul. 2015 1:02 AM IST
(From previous issue)
6. Political boundaries demarcated by the Britishers
Verrier Elwin had written in his treatise ‘’The Nagas in the 19th Century’’, Henry Harvesham Godwin to read what -Austen’s name is mentioned in it, not only as an explorer and geologist, but also an expert topographical drawing of who first went to Burma (now called Myanmar) where he explored the navigable waterways of the Irrawady delta. In the early part of 1856, he was attached to the Trigonometrical Survey of India to assist the first survey of Kashmir. He surveyed the great Karakoram glaciers together with the giant mountains that enclose them. In 1862, he mapped the northern border of the Pongong District on the Western edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and the following year he proceeded to Bhutan for mapping the areas between Sikkim and Punakha and the neighboring regions.
Godwin-Austen’s next assignment came when he had to survey Assam where he commanded the party and fully engaged in the survey of the Garo, Khasi and Jantia and some parts of the Brahmaputra.
In 1872, after 2 years leave, Godwin-Austen returned to India, much to the relief of his department. On his arrival, he was appointed as Deputy Superintendent of Survey with the assignment to survey and lay fixed political boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur and also to explore Patkoi range. A host of British officers, namely :- Captain Butler, Dr. Gordon, J. Johnstone who was Boundary Commissioner 1881-82, Lieutenant Ridgeway, Godwin-Austen’s two associates – Hinde and Ogle who were Assistant Surveyors and may others involved in the survey operation as the situation was slowly stabilizing. Dr. Brown became Political Agent in Manipur in 1868, and in 1873, he went with the Survey Party to settle the boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur.
The British officers seemed to have acquired an indefatigable spirit of hill-walking only when they landed in our country and began survey operations by walking through difficult terrains and hostile environment which was physically and mentally knackering. But years after, they were accustomed to such vagaries of nature that, on one occasion J. Johnstone had to say “hill-walking no longer tired me”. He went on to say, “Life is never monotonous as I take long walk everyday round the hills for important works”.
In the early part of February 1884, J. Johnstone, accompanied by Lieutenant Ridgeway, an interpreter and some men had visited Meluri, Akhegwo, Lephori (the writer’s village), and thence to Somrah (now in Myanmar),Wahong, Nganchan, Lasour of Tangkhul area, and on February 13,1884, he revisited the place where he encamped on the ground they occupied in 1881-82, when he was Boundary Commissioner. The next day he inspected the boundary pillars he had set up in 1881-82, and found intact which he said was a satisfactory proof that the settlement was not unacceptable to either Manipur or Burma.
7. Why boundaries are needed?
It is well known even to a man in the street that boundary demarcations are the imperative need, not only between nations and states but also between the tribes, villages and individuals in order to avoid any conflict that might arise in the absence of it. It was not a thought-out modern concept but it was there since time immemorial, if we care to read Deuteronomy 27: 17, 32:8 and Proverbs 22: 28. The Bible warns us the danger of removing the ancient boundary pillars set up by our forefathers as it would invite God’s wrath. It is also equally important to know that if boundary demarcations are not done by taking the consent of people into confidence, it may cause prolonged conflict and can eventually lead to intense conflict between the parties involved in the dispute where the bullets would be flying freely as we have often witnessed in the past, if misrepresentations in the map are not rectified or done away through mutual understanding or an official adjudication.
The tragedy was that, in the case of boundary demarcations between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur, and with other neighboring states, the British officers had done all in a haste in an arbitrary manner without the consent of the people affected by such demarcations, nor on demographic line but on watershed principle of Jigsaw puzzle to suit their day to day administration, with their extremely vile policy of divide and rule, and also for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered areas as it is evident from what is written in “The Nagas in the 19th century ’’ at page 178 which goes like this:“In November 1875, the Chief Commissioner reported that the number of Naga villages tendering revenue to our political officers was increasing”.
The Nagas who were totally ignorant due to illiteracy at that point of time, did not oppose such operations but allowed things to happen according to their whims and fancies even though they could see their territories and its people being traversing out into different administrative segments only to be assimilated later on to the socio-cultural and political identity of the dominant groups in their respective States. Whereas, in the other parts, such operations were opposed physically and politically as Dr. Gordon-Austen, in his own words stated that they were “physically and politically opposed to such operations”.
(To be concluded)

Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    25 Jul. 2015 
1. Why is the Naga society beset with so many internal disorders and conflicts?
Many thoughtful persons agree that something manifestly is going wrong with the Naga society but nobody cares to assume responsibility to define the nature of its causes and formulate a solution for the same. Why are there too many internal disorders and conflicts? To this, I can say without hesitation that all our internal disorders and conflicts that beset Naga society is due to the many unsettled conditions which we now need to identify and discover the hidden assets for rebuilding the Naga society. The volatile situations that often emanated from border and land disputes which are spreading across the state and beyond like virus is slowly eating into the vital parts of our collective future.
Look, the situation that has been going on between Konyak and Chang who could not see eye to eye for the past so many years which has already cost loss of many valuable lives; the recent clash between Yimchunger and Chang over land dispute leading to extreme form of raw vandalism to properties of one tribe by another; the frequent border clashes that involve between several villages of Nagaland and Manipur states under Phek district in the most virulent form for the past many years; the intermittent border clashes between Assam and Nagaland states in the Karbi sector; the recent border conflict between SAYO and Mao community¬¬- all these and others, have destroyed a sense of oneness amongst the Nagas almost irreconcilably.
It is indeed tragic and painful that, at the time when Nagas are sorely in need of unity for achieving our common goal, there are irreconcilable conflicts everywhere over boundary issue which can potentially affect the collective destiny of the Nagas. The malaise had reached to such a level that a day is not far off when the unity of the Nagas may be torn asunder beyond any possibility of gluing back together the bits and pieces. A warning bell has already been sounded that the Nagas need to be very careful and cautious in tackling issue that affects the whole Naga people. Let the NGOs and Civil Societies in Nagaland seriously think about setting up module for peace advocacy, although few feel strongly about the need for it as peace-making is a very tedious process. We need to set our house in order immediately.
2. Why peace is needed?
Peace is pre-requisite to development. As such one of our deals must be peace, based on understanding and self-restraint. Tragically, our relations among our own people as well as with people of neighboring states are far from ideal at this present time. It will do us immense good if each one of us realizes that our future depends on peace. We need to give increasing talk to people around us including others about the need of peace.
It should be kept in mind that every issue can be moderated through enormous respect for reality, and the reality can emerge only when both the parties involved in the dispute can come together with open-mindedness and engage in serious discussion to involve ways and means for meaningful solution. All issues are not insoluble; they are all soluble if we are honest, sincere and determined. The party that lays false claim must admit to being wrong which is not a weakness but a process of healing the wound, for both cannot have right. The lost of a case in the court should not necessarily be construed as a humiliating defeat.
3. Why border and land disputes are rising increasingly ?
Land represents the single most important source of livelihood. People everywhere clamor for land. “The proletariats need land”, said Karl Marx in his Das Kapital. At one point of time in the distant past in our Naga society, lands were aplenty as the population was thinly scattered, and they were in no way pressed for land and its resources as there were vast areas of uninhabited virgin forests. They also did not appreciate the value of land unlike people of our time due to ignorance. They roamed and roamed about like gypsies without any emotional attachment to the land. Apart from this fact, the Nagas were migratory in nature. Their slush and burn agriculture practice accounted for this migratory nature. They kept shifting from place to place along with the shifting of cultivation in that they would abandon their old temporary make-shift huts and move on to a new place near the site where they would decide upon for the next slash and burn cycle.
With the passage of time, people ceased to be nomadic as population was growing exponentially and land and its resources were depleting correspondingly. In fact, we are already at a level where our small planet can no longer support the weight of our population. It is due to this population pressure on land and its resources that border and land disputes are bound to arise at an alarming rate, often creating volatile situations everywhere which are beyond control even by the government authorities. According to 1961 census, the population of Nagaland was recorded as 3, 69,210 only. In 2001 census, the population of Nagaland has shot up to 19, 90,636 with decadal growth of 64.05% as against the national decadal growth of 21.54% (which has almost tripled and abnormally very high). If the decadal growth of population of any given census exceeds 23%, it is said to abnormally high.
This being the trend of population growth, the policy makers and planners should give serious thought to it as the exponential growth of population can have serious impact on the society of the future. We also need to tell our people how they must utilize their land and its resources wisely in such a way that they are not swiftly exhausted in their greed to gain short-term easy money. A resource-starved State like ours where economy is extremely fragile, compounded with insurgency problem and acute unemployment problems, has assumed threatening dimension. Considering all these, we are indeed heading towards the worst of times if we fail to formulate appropriate policies and programs based on visionary and futuristic approach so as to salvage our collective future. In this kind of land you get back less than what you had invested.
4. Type of boundaries:-
There are two types of boundaries:-(1) Traditional boundaries which were in existence since time immemorial and(2) Political boundaries which were demarcated between states by the British government in India for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered area. At some stretch of length, both descriptions coincide.
5. Traditional boundaries:-
Except for interstate boundaries, all other boundaries such as between tribes, villages and individuals in every village are all traditional which are upheld and protected/safeguarded by the customary law and practices which were considered as sacrosanct and inviolable. These traditional boundaries are more authentic, binding and lasting as they have been there since time immemorial much before the British came to our land. The jurisdiction of every Naga tribe or village is clearly delineated from the other mountain spurs, hill ridges, rivers or streams as boundaries to avoid any conflict between the tribes or villages, and these are upheld and protected by the customary practices. The boundaries between individuals are marked out by stone pillars, and any removal of these ancient pillars was considered taboo, and worthy of death. Even the Bible says so, in Deuteronomy 23:27 and Proverbs 22:28. There is three categories of land in almost every village with a few exceptions. They are:- (1) Individual land, (2) clan land and (3) Village community land. Whereas lands held by individuals are meant for agriculture farming, lands held by clan and village community are basically meant for cane and bamboo growing and include reserved forests.
(To be continued)

Shakhrie’s Address to the Governor of Assam on the eve of reaching the Hydari Agreement, June 1947  

 

Your Excellency,

 

Occasions of a visit of a Governor of a province to a district are always welcome, in as much as such occasions afford the people the opportunity to present their problems and desires to the distinguished visitor. This occasion of Your Excellency’s visit to Nagaland is specially welcome and the reasons are obvious.

 

Your Excellency has undertaken this tour to these hills at a season when the treacherous hillside make a smooth drive along the hill road uncertain. In this, the Naga people have the assurance that your Excellency is anxious to meet their desires, and that their case will receive Your Excellency’s most sympathetic consideration.

 

As is known to Your Excellency, the Naga people have submitted a Memorandum to His Majesty’s Government and the Government of India, asserting their right for self-determination and demanding the setting up an Interim Government of the Naga People for a period of ten years, so as to enable the Nagas to be so schooled as to make a responsible choice at the end of the ten years. Apart from the reply given by the Prime Minister of England to a question of Sir Walter Smiles, seen in the newspaper columns, no reply to this Memorandum of the Naga people has been received. The Naga National Council still looks for a reply, and reiterates the statement made in the Memorandum that: “A constitution drawn by people will be quite unsuitable and unacceptable to the Naga people. “it is our desire to make it  plain to Your Excellency that it will not be enough to say in the end that a constitution has been drawn up on the lines suggested by the Cabinet Mission. We know that Your Excellency will concede that the Naga people has much right for self-determination as any other people. Our request to Your Excellency is to do all that is in your power to enable the Nagas to stand on their own feet, so that they may be worthy members of a civilized world.

 

When a deputation of the Nagas very recently waited on Your Excellency, Your Excellency was appraised of the demand of the Naga people for the restoration of their old boundary. The ancient boundary with the Ahom kingdom, previously scrupulously observed by the Ahoms, has been overstepped throughout its length. All the valuable forests, previously a part of the Naga Hills have been transferred to Sibsagar district, or Nowgong district; an appendix to this is given. In fairness, justice and equality, Nagaland should be restored to the Nagas for it is our one great cry that Nagaland should be for the Nagas. We would urge Your Excellency to set up immediately a Boundary Commission to go into this very important question. In giving an outline of our Memorandum to the Sub-Committee of the Advisory Committee, we pointed out that Nagaland should be inalienable. We must state that any attempt to give any portion of the Naga Hills to non-Nagas in settlement during this transition period will be most strongly opposed.

 

The Naga National Council stands for the solidarity of all the Naga Tribes. The present Naga Hills district has arbitrarily been carved out for administrative convenience only. It is now our desire that Your Excellency takes all steps to bring all the Naga Tribes together, for they will all naturally desire to be together.

 

When the Naga people are seeking aid for their Interim Government, it is only fair and reasonable that they be not deprived of their just share, when the assets of the present Central Government of India are divided, and when reparation from Japan (the Naga Hills being the worst sufferer) is received. To this end we would urge Your Excellency to do all that is possible to help us. It is our earnest hope that this first visit of Your Excellency to our Nagland will not be the last, and that Your Excellency will next see us established according to our desires.

 

 

                               Ignorant villagers and fame hunger Indian Army Officers

By: Dr. Thohe Pou

One should appreciate and acknowledge what other people have done for you. A memory stone (monolith) may be erected in memory and honor of her or his contribution or helping the people. It is encouraging and laudable that Indian Army under Military Civil Action (MCA) projects have constructed some of the Soccer play ground in Senapati District, Manipur. Do you think the MCA is actively involved in bringing some infrastructures for the people in Senapati District as the present MLAs and Ministers from Senapati District and the Govt. of Manipur have no much developmental plan for the people?

It is interesting to note that Purul Akutpa village play ground, which was constructed under MCA, is christened after the name Maj. Gen. KK Sinha memorial play ground as he helped to construct the village’s play ground. The Maram Khunou village play ground is named after Brigadier Sharma – the Taphou Phyamai village play ground is also named after Major General Binoy Poonnen.

Why to name after one person when the contribution is or fund are from MCA, public or state Govt.? Naming of a place or anything after the name of the person who helps to do is nothing but shows only selfishness and hunger of fame. Why Tamenglong – Halflong road which was constructed by DC Amstrong Pame is not christened after him? This is very simple. He works for the public and not for his own fame. One may accept the concept of naming a village, place or playground if it is contributed individually and constructed the playground. But it is quite amusing when one uses his or her name using common or public fund. Do you think that in the future all the indigenous name of the place, village, house etc will be named after the name of the person who help to make or contributor? Is this trend of naming a road, play ground or anything after a person is a good sign?

The ground was constructed under Military Civic Action (MCA) and not a single penny will be taken out from the concerned army officer. May be there will be someone who will bring some development in your village and he or she may want to re-name after his or her name. Will you sell your village for the sake of developments? It may be also possible that Senapati DC may bring some development in the District, and he or she may want to re-name after his or her name. Memory stone should be erected and placed it honorably. Credit should be given and we should acknowledge whoever contribute or do for us. But naming after the person who contributed or helped to bring development is little strange, selfish and fame hunger only.

It is interesting that our Naga frontal organisation leaders are re-christening the meiteilon (Manipuri), British (English) and Indian (Hindi) name of the place into Naga indigenous’ name. For example: Tahamzam (Senapati) but simultaneously some people are naming the playground after their name. Why the UNC secretariat complex where the land was contributed by Kalinamai Taphou was not named as Kalinamai Taphou Secretariat Complex for UNC? Why the earlier play grounds which were constructed with the helped of the Indian army were not named after them? Is this naming a play ground after the name of the contributor’s is a new revolution of the modern educated societies who are hungry for fame or this a part of their mission to Indianised in the area? Why naming after an army officer when it was done under MCA?

The Ministers and MLAs in Senapati areas have not contributed much for the development of the people. The same to the frontal Naga organisation leaders have not done much for the people in the district. So, we should acknowledge and grateful to the concerned army officers who have posted in the areas and brought some developments for the public. However, naming the play ground or any project that comes under their department is seems to be too selfish and too much after their own fame. With the present trends of naming anything after the person who contributed or helped to do something, in the future there will be no name left to be christened again except re-christening.

Polarisation of Naga political culture: Where are we headed?

By Sira Kharay

Polarisation of Naga political culture appears increasingly pandemic. The voice of dissents and dissensions gets louder and bolder. Public disenchantment, disaffection, frustration and outrage against the perceived closed and insular system, cronyism, nepotism, egotism, greed, corruption and injustice are already out in the open streets. The traditional authority of the NSCNs and in particular the (I-M) has been put to open challenge for the first time and with it the smaller dissident groups and factions get more vociferous to lay a claim to legitimacy. The emerging assertive Naga public is determined to recast its sense of loyalty by fundamentally reinventing the notion of legitimacy and power in terms of popular will of the people as the repository of the ultimate political authority.

Now the public asserts its right to democratic participation in the negotiating process of the Indo-Naga peace dialogue. The emerging transformation appears decisive and dislodging. For better, or for worst, the voice of dissents cannot be silenced in a free society. A strong nation can only be built on the edifice of free choice of opinion and constructive dialogue. But the devils work best at times of confusion and while the nervousness of the nationalist leadership is palpable for this obvious reason, the academia and the political observers wait and watch in despair.

What is intrusively disturbing amidst this social metamorphosis is the dysfunctional presence of a small coterie of schismatic dissidents who attempt to “banalize” Naga nationalism into a dull project of development and governance issue within the state of geographical Nagaland by vivisecting the imagination of Nagaland away from the common consciousness of the term “Naga” as a “people” with history and right to self-determination. The senseless repetition of the rhetoric of the terms “outsider” and “insider” within the narrow trivialisation of the term “Naga” as “fragmentable” concept which stems from the confusion of the personal with the political has done more harm than good. The danger with such regressive parochialism is that it tends to brutalize the term “Naga” by further deepening the perceived animus of tribal antagonism among the Nagas.

However, the gullible masses in times of resentment and frustration are likely to flock even to such vagrant voices that openly challenge the existing authority sans political wisdom. For instance, an innocent villager confessed, “Harassment at the hands of our national workers has become unbearable and we even savoured the idea of Manipur Government’s recent attempt to permanently post IRBs and Commandos at Ukhrul town. It would be a relief if the IRBs and Commandos could arrest and lock them all up in jail.” The point is the perceived excesses of the nationalist workers have exposed the erstwhile patriotic Naga into such recalcitrant social behaviour to the extent of disowning the term “Naga” itself.

Alongside this challenge is the legalistic dialectics of ACAUT in articulating “One Government, One Tax” within the vocabulary of Indian legalism rather than Naga revolutionary jargon. It is true that there should be “One Government, One Tax”, but the narratives of articulating the issue within the narrow framework of Indian notion of “legality” and “illegality” as an end in itself rather than means to an end has the irreversible danger of domesticating the international Indo-Naga issue into some redundant municipal dispute. However, for reasons of senseless self-gratification and indulgence for too long, the tax payers feel betrayed and disillusioned. Nevertheless, ACAUT in order to remain true to Naga national commitment, its emphasis should shift more towards the modalities of achieving “One Government, One Tax” rather than on the emotive confrontation of defining what constitutes “extortion”.

It is true that the evocative fighting spirit and heroic sacrifices of the past do not condone the present sense of nationalist lethargy, but it is equally true that this legacy alone is the whole inheritance of Naga nationhood and the same cannot be disavowed for the perceived default of one. The point is before the Naga society takes all the patterns of a Hobbesian existence, where bitter strife, denial and killings become the order of the day, each sober Naga stakeholder must recognise the limits of the other by now.

The idea of “villain” and “hero” in the discourse of politics is a mere social construct which in itself is flawed and problematic. The demeaning practice of political mudslinging has no place in a civilised political setup. Politics must be rediscovered as an art of mediating the perceived differences without the necessity of appropriating the notion of truth to oneself. The adversarial political culture of projecting the other as the “villain” must give way to a more progressive political behaviour of constructive social and political dialogues.

In tandem with it, there is urgency for the nationalist organisations to exercise certain creative political imaginations to innovatively respond to the changing demands and perceptions of the people before the remnants of their organisational legitimacy evaporate into thin air in the eyes of the weary public. The public must at same time appreciate that it would be unrealistic on their part to expect total physical reconciliation of all the NPGs given the history of bitter factionalism and suffice would it be for the day if they could arrive at a principle-based emotional reconciliation in letter and spirit with a managing committee to steer ahead the Naga nation as one in different bodies.

Dilemma in economic and political self determination

Elijah Chara, Research Scholar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.: 31 Oct. 2014 2:57 AM IST

Contemporary Naga Nationalism is dominated by politics of factionalism and divorce of people (Nagas) and power (NPGs); which makes the independence dream even more dramatic, especially to an outsider (non-Naga) who are ready to confused the ever doubtful Nagas with more doubts in an attempt to shield the Nagas of their desires: and the result being, we fail to think out of the box and we fail to see ourselves standing in our own feet rather than depending on false charities showered to us by the adopted parents (India and Myanmar). I don’t deny that Naga Nationalism is an exhausted demand synonymously linked to Money-Money Bang-Bang: enough researches and surveys here and there are done to understand the path of this nationalism which turn bloody, instead of peace and prosperity; and the sudden awakening among the Nagas who started to question the power of gun and greed for money rather than trying to thwart the system that makes us helpless and dependent, which are the evil roots of blood money floating in the Naga society. Yes, helpless and dependent are the Nagas; because we the contemporary Nagas don’t want to help ourselves, we depend on NPGs to wage war with India and Myanmar to deliver Nagas to the promised Land- Naga Homeland/Nagas Lands/ Nagalim and our unwillingness to start a civil revolution for Independent Naga Homeland rather than depending on these (since 1947) NPGs’ guerilla warfare using gun and bloody negotiations which not only divide the Nagas and create intra-hostilities because they prefer ‘hard cash and power’ over ‘independence’ but has also exhausted Nagas of positivity. Because of total dependence on the NPGs to negotiate with India/Myanmar, Nagas are easy prey both to NPGs, India/Myanmar and unexpected ‘side show’ fear psychosis created by world’s capitalists political economy on the Nagas by diverting Nagas attention from Independence to Darwin’s ‘Survival of the fittest’.

They used to say if Nagas get independence how they will survive because there are no economically viable natural resources in Nagas Lands which can feed the Nagas; and this is one of the main point when India always scare the Naga leaders of Nagas future: without India’s economy Nagas won’t survive a year. But to me, Nagas Lands are rich in resources, resources which can make Nagas prosperous, unless greed overtook us. If there are no economically viable natural resources in Nagas Lands, why is the Govt. of India so adamant over ‘Oil exploration and drilling’ in Wokha, Tamenglong and Peren? Is it that India wants to extract all the oil resources from Nagas Lands when there is still time, and only when the oil is exhausted and oil wealth drained to India that India will think of giving Independence to Nagas? This speculation cannot be ignored considering the day to day statement made by Indians (since our primary school history books) that ‘British came to India, took all the wealth to Britain and gave Independence to India only after all the wealth was drain leaving India in poverty’: so India does not want to part with Nagas because Naga Hills is rich in oil.

The Govt. of Nagaland can be clubbed together as an agent of Govt. of India if it fails to protect Nagas resources and future development by simply obeying New Delhi’s flimsy development packages. Again, Nagas Lands is rich with hydro power, no wonder India is adamant over construction of Tipaimukh Dam (tri junction of Manipur, Mizoram and Assam) and Tamanthi Dam (Myanmar), both of them together will generate more than 2,500 MW power, but will the wealth generated from these power plants ever make the Nagas rich? Now, oil and hydro power are the assets of Nagas which can bring economic development to Nagas: so, how can we say that Nagas Lands are devoid of resources? Did India ever tell to Bhutan ‘your country is poor so merge with India and become rich’! If our nearby country like Bhutan can survive of its own by standing on their feet, why are we Nagas so worried if parting from Indian/Myanmar will makes us poorer. No doubt, the giants (India and Myanmar) are just scaring the Nagas that we will be poorer, in fact, they will be poorer.

Of course, we will be poorer which is the case with every newly independent countries but if we are wise and crafty enough, we can turn the poverty into prosperity: even Nagas dream model countries like Israel and South Korea are never born rich, they are made from scratch and little resources; in fact Nagas Lands has more natural resources than in Israel or South Korea, but the only thing we lack is ‘man power’, because we Nagas are ‘maybe’ too lazy to study, that is why we fail to make use of modern economic tricks. Of course I won’t deny Nagas are hard working and intelligent, but we don’t put much labour for better success that ‘now’, in fact, we tend to keep our books and pens aside once we reach our destination (pass exam or get job or retired). We are bad in economics that explains why most Naga Markets are very expensive and unaffordable: our bad economics is also reflected in the use to ‘gun’ to make money, rather than hard work. A good Naga leader will not think of extracting money from the Nagas, but rather think of how to protect the Natural resources of Nagas so that Nagas will benefit from it and proof to the world that ‘Nagas can do it’, but our good leaders are just like Tantri the Mantri, always hatching plots to make more money: I won’t be surprised if any Naga names appear in Swiss Bank Account holders lists for Black Money.

Considering the political scare that Nagas dream of Independence is impossible, there is nothing in this world that is not possible. Armenia and Moldova, countries much smaller than Nagas Lands declared independence from the USSR, the Super Power; Timor East, a country of about 14,000 Sq. Km (1/4th the size of Nagas Lands) declared independence from Indonesia after decades of fighting. Even Israel a small country of just about 20,000 Sq. Km fought single handedly four countries to safe guard its independence. This brings to the question, is guerrilla warfare enough for the Nagas? No, in fact Guerella warfare brought bad image to the Nagas, terming Naga Armies as Insurgents, Militants and Terrorists. Of course, Marxist type or Leninists type or Maoists type or Che Guevara type revolutions saved many countries, but we must not forget that those countries were already independent before the revolution. Maoist Revolution in China was possible because China was already an independent state, and Communism-Maoism only replaced the existing Chinese Govt,, so was the case in Russia, Cuba, Vietnam and Latin Americas. So, when NNC went to China for help, the Chinese only doctrine them with ‘how to over throw the govt. using violence’ rather than ‘what Nagas must do to gain independence’, because the Mao himself deny Tibetan Independence. Enough of external political ideologies in the Nagas, because none of them are helping us: it is time to develop our own Naga Political Ideology just like the English has their own political philosophy, the Germans their own philosophy: but it is danger for the Nagas to develop their own political ideology because it will be filled with ‘ism’ and ‘hatred’, because of our intra-xenophobism: we always aspire to become classy like the westerns, so it is high time for the Nagas to do away with ‘tribalism/barbarism’ and think like the westerns.

Tribalism is never going to save the Nagas, it is like caste system and purdah system hampering social and political development. Oh, coming back to the political dilemma, it is interesting to note in the Naga society how disunited the Nagas, the people, politicians and NPGs: Nagas as a whole are never united (so much hatred among us), Politicians are lined up to impress New Delhi and Naypyidaw and gain some favours while NPGs are never united but fully united when it comes to ‘tax’ issue, everyone wants their share. Concerning Independence, most Nagas shun away from this independence topic, we assume that the responsibility of Independence is for the NPGs, and only the NGPs should do the movements and revolutions. NPGs are claiming that they are fighting/negotiating for Nagas Independence, while the Nagas themselves are not even willing to stand up and shout ‘we want independence’, or are too scared to do so: let’s turn to Indian history, the Indians never said ‘oh, the responsibility of Independence is Gandhi and his friends, Bhagat Singh and co., and INA, so they will fight for our independence while we live normal life’; but no, the Indians actively participate in the movement: but, what about us? Do we participate? Just feeding the NPGs with money and grumbling does not account to participation, unless we also physically shout and demand: so that world might know that Nagas struggle for Independence is the Nagas demand, not Militants’ demand.

Yes, Independence is a must debatable topic: but I want to hear a Naga talking about independence sans NPG’s role. It is necessary for a civilian revolution, rather than Arms revolution and arms negotiation. I am not against NPGs, but just expressing an alternative movement from the peoples’ side because, Nagas Right to Self Determination should stem from the People, not from the NPGs; and the people should demand their rights, not used the NPGs as a medium: otherwise, where is the Right to Self Determination when they (NPGs) always take decision for us as per their whims. But to start an alternative movement sans NPGs, we Nagas need to develop our own political thoughts and economic principles, where unity, equality and prosperity, rather than tribalism prevails.

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