Memorandum to PMO of India

To
Shri. Narendra Modi
The Hon’ble Prime Minster
Government of India

Subject: Memorandum

Hon’ble Sir,

We bring Warm Greetings from the Office of Naga Students’ Federation

*1) About Naga Students’ Federation:*
The Naga Students Federation (NSF) was formed in 1947 founded on the vision and sacrifices of educated Naga youths of that time, who felt the need to have an organized body through which collective aspiration could be articulated and at the same time respond to issues confronting the students in particular and Nagas in general. It came to being at a time when there were only few Nagas who could apprehend futuristic possibilities with clear political and social acumen.
Since then, the Naga Students’ Federation has been striving for the larger interest of the Nagas-unwavering in its stand and persevering in promoting the rights of the Nagas. NSF has been standing firm without compromising on any issues, according to their correct perspectives, which are a matter of concern for the Nagas as a people, irrespective of tribes or divisive elements that may prevail from time to time.
It has always been the standpoint of the federation that Nagas in general would live under one administrative umbrella under a sovereign government and that the stand of the federation has always been integration of all Naga homeland and sovereignty in line with our motto ‘For Unified Lim and Glory of Nagas’.

*2) Brief Background of the Ongoing Peace process:*
The journey of Naga Struggle has never been an easy road. However, after a prolong military confrontation, the NSCN and GOI entered into second ceasefire on 1st August, 1997; with the initiatives for a peaceful resolution to the indo-Naga conflict. The basis of present political dialogues between the Government of India and NSCN representing the Naga people are a) without any pre-condition b) at the highest level and c) in third countries.
On June 14, 2001 in Bangkok it was re-affirmed that the ceasefire agreement is between the Government of India and NSCN as two entities without territorial limits. The process was further strengthened on 11th July, 2002, the then Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared recognition of the ‘unique history and situation of the Nagas’ by the GOI. This agreement is land mark in the historical and political journey of the Nagas as India accepted for the first time that Nagas were never a part of India either by conquest or by consent of the Naga people. In addition, it recognizes that, the prevailing situation in Nagalim is political in nature and not that of law and order problem of India, thus, requiring political solution. Hectic negotiations for eighteen (18) years culminated to the historic signing of Framework Agreement between the GOI and NSCN on August 3rd, 2015. Thereafter, the seven (7) NNPGs were joined the talk for an inclusive peace process on September 27th 2017.

*3) Resentment against R N Ravi’s dual role and his conduct thereafter*
R N Ravi in his dual role as the GOI interlocutor as well as the Governor of Nagaland was viewed with skepticism by the Naga people at large. However, the federation refrained from making our disagreement public hoping that he would discharge his dual duty with the highest degree of integrity which, to our utter dismay, was not to be.
R N Ravi has been indulging in rhetoric words and practices which has resulted in much chaos and confusion in the Naga society. Though his cunningly concocted attempt to divide the Naga society into ‘primary stakeholders’ and ‘secondary stakeholders’ was an utter failure, he has gone about painting a glossy picture of the same through print and electronic media.
It has come to light through various sources and media houses that the Indian interlocutor has been adopting the practice of twisting and misinterpreting the words enshrined in the historic framework agreement against agreed terms and principles to suit his political overlords. Such a practice is inimical to the unique history and legitimate rights of the Naga people. It has also become crystal clear to the Naga people that GOI is approaching the peace process from a bureaucratic lens which is leading to the misinterpretation of compentencies that has been mutually worked out so far between the entities.

*4) Deadline in the negotiation process*
The Indo-Naga peace process has been ongoing since the last 22 years making much progress. However, the recent development wherein the GOI interlocutor has been resorting to imposing a uniteral deadline of 31st October’ 19 upon the Naga negotiating team is against the universally accepted principle of a peaceful and mutually agreed negotiation. No honorable solution can be brought about if one of the teams to the negotiation starts to throw their weight around and tries to impose the same upon the opposite party. More so, the projected deadline has been responsible for much pain and has thrown the Naga society into further chaos which is totally the opposite of what the peace process seeks to achieve, i.e. permanent peace and tranquility in the Naga homeland.
The federation therefore seeks the intervention of your good office in advising the interlocutor to refrain from holding the hard earn peace process to the ransom of time.

*5) NSF and other civil organizations sidelined in the present consultative process*
It is an undeniable fact that the NSF is the oldest pan Naga civil society organization formed to represent the voice of the Naga people. It is also the fact that the federation is older than even the Union of India. However, in the recent series of consultative meets, the federation has been left out as an uninvited guest thereby depriving the Naga students and youths of the opportunity to express their aspirations and desires from the impending solution to the protracted Indo-Naga political issue. We must admit that our sentiments have been deeply hurt by the non-invitation by Shri. R N Ravi, the GOI interlocutor to the Peace talk and current Governor of Nagaland. NSF is not against any organization or individuals invited for consultation, however, as the main stakeholder representing the voices of those who will inherit ‘the solution, it is unimaginable for the consultation process to be a mandated one without the NSF.

*6) Economic packages alone is no solution at all*
The sacrifices of many Nagas whether they are dead or still alive, is not a struggle for Naga identity alone; it is also a struggle for self determination, a struggle against the imposition of alien culture and values upon us, a struggle against the ‘divide and rule’ policy of the forces determined to keep us subjugated.
It is in this background that the NSF made its standpoint crystal clear that Economic packages or monetary assistance cannot purchase the rights of the Naga people. Rather, the GOI should not hesitate from allowing the Naga people to retain their legitimate rights.
Further, the Naga people have come a long way by denouncing the 16th Point Agreement or the Shillong Accord and that any sort of agreement that is going to be signed between the GOI and Naga negotiators should not be mere reaffirmation or expansion of 16 Point Agreements.

*7) Conclusion*
In the backdrop of the above given history and position, the Naga Students’ Federation (NSF) hereby demands your good office that:
1) The Unique Naga Identity be recognized through the Naga National flag which is dear to the hearts and minds of the Naga people.
2) The Government of India (GOI) to honor the 3rd August Framework Agreement both in letter and in spirit as it was signed by both the entities in the presence of the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India.
3) Solution to the protracted indo-Naga political issue should be inclusive, honorable and acceptable basing on the uniqueness of Naga History.
4) GOI should focus on ‘mutually negotiated solution’ instead of ‘imposed solution’.
5) GOI should desist from provoking the situation by sending Indian Armies to Naga homeland and issuing statement of threat.

The Naga Students Federation takes our stand to make it succinctly and explicitly clear that the federation for all times to come continue to pursue the Pan Naga youth aspiration of integration and sovereignty through a democratic process. The Federation shall continue to stand by its own identity and principles laid down by its founding fathers in the larger interest of the Nagas.
We pray that the right wisdom will prevail and will bring lasting peace and progress to the Naga people.

Copy to:
1) Eno. Antonio Guterres Secretary General, United Nations (UN), New York
2) Ralph Bunche, Secretary General, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples’ Organization (UNPO), Brussells, Belgium
3) Dr. Frans Welman, Secretary, Naga International Support Centre (NISC) Amsterdam
4) Guard File
Sd/- President, Naga Students’ Federation
Sd/- President, Anal Lenruwl Tangpi (ALT)
Sd/- President, Angami Students’ Union (ASU)
Sd/- President, Ao Kaketshir Mungdang (AKM)
Sd/- President, All Zeliangrong Students’ Union (AZSU)
Sd/- President, Chakhesang Students’ Union (CSU)
Sd/- President, Lotha Students’ Union (LSU)
Sd/- President, Lamkang Kurchuknao Kunpun (LKK)
Sd/- President, Mao Students’ Union (MSU)
Sd/- President, Maram Students’ Union (MKS)
Sd/- President, Maring Students’ Union (MSU)
Sd/- President, Mongsang Naga Students’ Union (STS)
Sd/- President, Moyon Naga Students’ Union (TTBR)
Sd/- President, Poumai Naga Tsiidoumai Me (PNTM)
Sd/- President, Pochury Students’ Union (PSU)
Sd/- President, Rengma Students’ Union (RSU)
Sd/- President, Sumi Kiphimi kuqhakulu (SKK)
Sd/- President, Tangkhul Katamnao Saklong (TKS)
Sd/- President, All Naga Students’ Association Manipur (ANSAM)
Sd/- President, All Nagaland College Students’ Union

NMA objects to ‘policy of exclusion’

 

DIMAPUR, OCT 23
Affirming its commitment towards an ‘inclusive and just peace’ that respects Naga aspirations and long years of struggle, the Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA) has raised objection to what it described as “the policy of exclusion” of civil society organisations like Naga Hoho, NMA, NSF and NPMHR by the State agencies and the Interlocutor for the Naga Peace talks. In a press release, NMA asserted that as women and mothers they have suffered as victims of the conflict, but also made their contributions to peace making and peace building.

As regards, NMA has appealed to Naga leaders and brothers from different Naga political groups to come together in peace and speak for a solution that brings sustainable peace to the Nagas and their children. Naga mothers also appealed to the state government to “impartially” play its role of facilitators for peace by taking all Nagas forward. Further, NMA urged the Interlocutor to “abstain from selective division” of Nagas. It reminded that Naga women’s voices must also be counted in the process of peace building. NMA maintained that Nagas cannot afford another period of violence. “Let there be no more bloodshed and peace be brought through mutual respect and understanding,” NMA underscored.

Source from Nagaland Post.

Nagas and Meiteis must live together as good neighbours

July 30, 2018
Z.K. Pahrü Pou
Mission Colony, Pfutsero

*History of the Meiteis (Manipuris):* In the past, Meitei kingdom was known as Kangleipak. The present name ‘Manipur’ evolved along with the sanskritisation of Meitei population during the 18th century. The Meiteis have a long history which dates back to 33 AD. The Royal Chronicle known as “Cheitharon Kumpapa” has the chronological order of Meitei Kings from first century till the late 1940s. However, with more confusion exists than clear evidences, there is much contestation on this claim. A noted Meitei scholar, O. Tomba Singh, in his book “A Need to Rewrite Manipuri History (1993)” opined that the record of Royal Chronicle is debatable because geological excavations suggest that the entire Manipur valley was under water till about 500 years ago. Prof. Jyotirmoy Roy, in his book “History of Manipur (1973),” wrote that although the sea receded (the present Loktak Lake), the valley portion of Manipur remained under water for a long time. If we are going to believe the Royal Chronicle dating back to 33 AD then we may conclude that the Meiteis have settled somewhere else and migrated and settled at the present site in about 500 years ago. The Kangleipak kingdom was confined to Imphal Valley extending to Kabaw Valley which was gifted to Burma.

*Past Relationship of the Meiteis and Nagas:* Nagas did not live under monarchical king like Meiteis but each village existed as a sovereign and republic nation. They lived as free people and had very less contact with outside world. Unlike the Nagas, the Meiteis often wage wars with the neighbouring Kings such as the Burmese and Tripuri Kings. Interestingly it is on record that the Nagas extended helping hand to the Meitei Maharajas in times of danger and wars. In 1717-18, the Raja Garib Nawaz requested the Naga Chiefs to him attack Samjok. According to K. Gyanendra Singh, in his book “Security and Development: The Political Economy of Insurgency in Manipur, 2011), Raja Garib Nawaz was a man who practiced both vaishnavism and militarism. His constant war efforts had led him to develop cordial relationship with the Nagas. Again when the Burmese troops attacked and took possession of Kangleipak for seven years, all the Meitei men fled to the hills from the Valley for safety. During this Seven Years’ Devastation (Chahi-Taret Khuntakpa, 1819-1826), the Tangkhul Nagas generously gave shelter to the Meitei brothers (See Prof. Jyotirmoy Roy, “History of Manipur (1973). Probably some Meiteis permanently settled in Ukhrul district. In this context, it is not difficult to understand why Meiteis consider the Tangkhul Nagas as ‘elder brother.’ In appreciation of this humane gesture, the Tangkhul Nagas were given prominent place in some of Meitei religious ceremonies even today. When the Nagas had given their best for the protection of the Meitei Kingdom, should not the Meiteis reciprocate the Nagas with the same good gesture today?

*The Nagas in Manipur state:* Although Nagas do not have their own written record, their oral traditions pointed out that they were the first settlers in Manipur. T.C.Hudson, in his Book, “The Naga Tribes of Manipur, 1996 (reprint), also mentioned that the Nagas were well settled than their counterpart in the valley. However, due to topographical location, the Meiteis had rapidly developed themselves. Cutting short the story, the coming of the British to Manipur had colossal impact on the sovereign right of the Nagas. The British helped the Meiteis to drive out the Burmese. Gambhir Singh was made the ruler of Manipur. By 1872, the British along with the combined forces of Raja Gambhir Singh began to intrude into the Naga territory. However, in 1891, war broke out between the British and the Meiteis. The Meiteis were defeated and British took control of the whole of Manipur. The British main interest in Naga areas was to collect taxes and use them as porters. It allowed the Meitei Raja to conquer some of the land of the Nagas on the condition that Meitei Raja would help the troops of the British to go to Burma without any hindrance. Later on, this has resulted to the Naga Raj movement by the Zeliangrong Nagas in Manipur. The British knowing fully that the Meiteis and Nagas were of different ethnic communities kept them under different administration. According to N. Ibobi Singh, the hill territory was separated from the general administration on the plea that ‘the hill people are not Manipuris and have entirely different customs and languages’ (The Manipur Administration 1707-1907). The distinct identity of the Nagas from the Meiteis was recognised even after India’s Independence under the Article 371-A. The British and the Independent India had then fully recognised the fact that Meiteis and the Nagas were of different ethnic groups. The Naga leaders of the past who have agreed to stay in Manipur (when a new state was curved out from Assam) might have assumed to be saved because there were many provisions that safeguarded the interest of the Nagas. The fact that Meiteis and Nagas are different needs to be recognised, respected and accepted by all so as to evolve a harmonious and neighbourly relationship among all the communities.

*Problem of an-inch of land:* The total area of present Manipur is 22,327 sq. Km, out of which the hill areas cover 20,126 sq km and inhabited by the tribal people. The tribal people (Nagas and Kukis) settles in the hill areas and the valley is dominated by the Meiteis. The Naga people live in their own land (hill area) so as the Meiteis (valley area). The dominant Meitei community who keep saying that ‘not even an inch of land in Manipur will be given to the Nagas’ is nothing more than to insult the Nagas. The Nagas have been living in their own land since time immemorial. There is nothing such as ‘‘smaller or greater Naga land”. Wherever the Nagas are living for centuries, rightly the land belongs to them. If the Nagas have seized any part of land and forest that belong to the Meiteis, I am sure the Nagas will be happy to return them. The Meitei elites must come out with concrete historical proof which village or parts of land of the Meiteis have been seized by the Nagas in the history of Manipur. Let’s call spade a spade. We can’t live together with lie. Nagas in Manipur are not asking for even ‘an inch of land’ that rightfully belongs to other community. The Nagas are just pleading the Government of India and the Meiteis to recognise and respect what is rightfully belonging to them since time immemorial. This can be done through readjustment of the existing state boundary under Article 3 of Indian Constitution.

*State wide Bandh/protest in Manipur:* The Meitei CSOs are gearing up to organise with what they called as ‘state wide bandhs or state wide protest’ by ‘the whole people of Manipur’ against the imminent signing of Indo-Naga political talk. Look at the fact. Out of the total area of Manipur state, the so-called ‘state wide protest’ or ‘bandhs’ will affect only about 2000 sq km (valley portion). So the right term should be ‘Valley wide protest or bandhs’ by the ‘Meiteis’. Using the phrases such as ‘state wide bandhs’ or the ‘whole people of Manipur’ is misleading and a blatant lie. These are used just for media propaganda. On the other hand, it gives the impression that ‘Manipur’ means only ‘the valley portion’ and ‘the whole people of Manipur’ simply mean ‘Meiteis’. Therefore, it is even safer for the Meitei community to be specific by saying that the bandhs/strike will be affected in the Valley and imposed by the Meitei community. Of course, it is no surprise, to see some Naga people ( especially Naga Chameleon politicians) with vested interest (or some common people out of compulsion) speaking to media about the unity of Manipur during every protest or bandhs. Such voice cannot and does not represent the interest of the whole Naga community.

*Save life, Save Neighbours*: Nagas have lost thousands of its brave men and women for the cause of freedom. Meiteis have lost 18 precious lives on Naga issue on June 18, 2001. Let’s not sacrifice any more life on this issue. Enough is enough. Meitei elites may kindly give up the temptation to play the role of BIG BROTHER for the Nagas. It only provoke to anger the Naga population when some Meitei politicians shouted that ‘there is no Naga in Manipur’; ‘the Meiteis will take extreme step if special status or any type of alternative arrangement’ is made for the Nagas. These are not brotherly and sisterly words. If Meiteis really love the Naga people, then they should not stop the GOI to develop the Naga people through certain special arrangements.
It is time for Meitei elites and politicians to think beyond the solution of the Nagas for the development of Meitei community. We need to live side by side as good neighbours. We need the help of each other to grow and develop in the modern world. If Meiteis have political rights, then they should tell to the Government of India and get it. Nagas would be very much happy to see them fully developed and well secured. Even if Nagas are separated, Manipur will continue to be a state with 40 MLAs intact. Geographically, Manipur will be still bigger than Goa. Meiteis will live in peace without any disturbance from the Nagas who are considered to be ‘trouble makers’ in Manipur. Instead of standing in the way of Nagas’ solution, it is time for the Meiteis to search ways and means to build up good relationship in the aftermath of Naga political solution with India. Nagas owned their freedom and they have every right to decide for their destiny. Any community or party that hinders the Nagas from achieving its aspiration will be considered as ‘enemy’ by the coming generation.

For discussion: zkpahr@gmail.com

Gathering the tribe

_With different groups involved in the Naga peace talks process, hope of a solution grows_

– Patricia Mukhim| The Hindu|Editorial| 3rd Nov. 2017(Friday)

Perhaps one of the most talked
about issues as far as the North-
east is concerned is the Naga
struggle for sovereignty which
started a day before India’s Inde-
pendence. In the Naga mind, this
issue oscillates between nostalgia
for its unique history and the
promise of a better future without
disturbing this irreplaceable past.
The problem with reality is that it
does not allow us to romance the
past.
Myth and reality
The Naga national workers are no
longer in the prime of their lives.
The chairman of the National So-
cialist Council of Nagaland (I-M),
Isak Chisi Swu, has passed away
and Thuingaleng Muivah too is get-
ting on in years. In an article, ‘The
Presence of the Past’, Roger Cohen
says, “As we grow older the past
looms larger. The past is full of pos-
sibilities. The future may seem wan
by comparison and, for each of us,
we know where it ends. With a
bang or whimper…”
Reams have been written, sev-
eral seminars and workshops or-
ganised, and there have been daily
cogitations on the Naga peace talks
since they started in 1997. In Au-
gust 2015, when the Framework
Agreement was signed between
the Government of India and the
NSCN (I-M), expectations were
high that an “honourable settle-
ment” was in the o�ng. The prob-
lem is with the use of words which
lend themselves to several inter-
pretations depending on who the
stakeholders are. What is honour-
able for the NSCN(I-M) may not
seem honourable enough to Naga
society as a whole, with disparate
aspirations and interpretations. Be
that as it may, the Centre’s Inter-
locutor for the Naga Peace talks,
R.N. Ravi, has taken on a formid-
able task.
No other interlocutor has inter-
acted with and met so many Naga
National Political Groups (NNPGs)
and civil society groups. For the
�rst time, Mr. Ravi was able to push
the envelope and create that integ-
ral space where all voices are heard
with equal respect, sometimes at
the risk of the NSCN (I-M) calling o�
the talks, since they felt that being
signatories to the Framework
Agreement, they alone have the
right to call the shots. This fact
needs to be appreciated. And it has
to be understood that the Indian
establishment too is not an easy
customer. There is scepticism and
there are doubts whether wider
consultations would result in caco-
phony, making the task of arriving
at a solution much more di�cult.
A di�cult path
For the interlocutor it’s a tightrope
walk. The Naga people are a proud
race and have held fast to their cul-
tures, traditions and language. Yet
it cannot be denied that tribal loy-
alty often comes in the way of a col-
lective discourse for the future of
Nagaland. Perhaps one organisa-
tion that has brought together
people from all tribes is the ACAUT
(Against Corruption and Unabated
Taxation), which is seemingly in-
clusive of all tribes and a mass
movement of sorts to protest
against taxation by di�erent armed
groups and factions. So far, about
33 delegations, including the dif-
ferent tribal Hohos and recently
the six NNPGs, have had their say.
For Mr. Ravi, it is an opportunity to
further understand how the
Framework Agreement should pan
out.
But Mr. Ravi’s visit to Dimapur
last month was also seen with
some scepticism. A video clip of
the public reception given to him
drew some uncharitable com-
ments. Is the pent-up rage and frus-
tration among the youth due to the
protracted peace talks or does the
rage spring from something else?
The way forward
For the Naga people at this junc-
ture, the most pragmatic step is to
take a balanced view of the past.
Obsession with one point of view
hinders any kind of progress. With
16 major tribes, each with a sense
of nationality of its own and every
tribe having its village republics
which is a crucial part of their cul-
ture, there will be divergent ‘na-
tional’ narratives. Naga national-
ism is both a sentiment and a
movement.
Ethnic boundaries of yore which
went beyond geopolitical borders
of the present nation can be both
problematic and defy pragmatism.
Then there is the issue of the In-
dian nation state, a term that is also
problematic but which has
provided its own stability for 70
years. If one were to go by Benedict
Anderson’s “Imagined Communit-
ies”, then all the communities of
the Northeast fall in that ambit.
In an interview to the Nagaland
Post, Mr. Ravi said the ongoing
peace talks may have been initi-
ated by the NSCN (I-M) but it has
now become more inclusive. One
ray of hope as far as the Framework
Agreement is concerned is that
there appears to be a political con-
sensus and faith in the process.
This in itself is a huge step forward.
Now that the tribal Hohos and the
NNPGs have all thrown in their sup-
port, there is hope that the much-
awaited political solution will ar-
rive sooner than later.

(Patricia Mukhim is Editor, `The Shillong
Times’, and former member, National
Security Advisory Board)

On Nagas of Nagaland State Political solution

By: Dr.R.B. Thohe Pou

The Naga population in 2011 is about 4 million. And the Nagas live in Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh (North East India) and Myanmar. The Nagas are comprised of various tribes, and the Nagas are culturally, socially and ethnically different from the mainland Indian. Culturally or ethnically, there is not any affinity between the Nagas and the Indian except that the Indian have forcefully invaded the Naga country and occupied in Nagalim since 1956.

How the Nagaland state was formed?
Some of the Nagas of present Nagaland state have forcefully formed the new state of India known as Nagaland state. Now some of the Naga leaders of Nagas of Nagaland want to have a separate Naga political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland only. Do you think that giving Naga Political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland will be easier and more feasible than bringing the Nagas under one administrative unit? The GoI not willing to integrate the Naga inhabited areas under one administrative unit should not be the reason for demanding a separate Naga political for the Nagas in Nagaland only.

The present Nagaland state was allowed to form by GoI without much effort. In fact, it was formed in order to erase the concept of the Naga national movement and to smother the Naga national movement. The GoI treacherously enticed some of the Naga leaders, and eventually formed the present state Nagaland. All the Naga architectures who helped to form the present Nagaland state were alleged to be assassinated by NNC as the Naga national movement cannot compensated in exchange of Nagaland state formation. One should not be too proud and too complacent of having a state like Nagaland under the constitution of India as it was formed to weaken and smother the Naga national movement.

With the formation of Nagaland state, many Nagas in Nagaland are enjoying the fruits of the Nagas (Nagas in Naga land or Nagalim) as the Government of India have been pouring a huge amount of budget EVERY year to Nagaland state to fool the Nagas, and to pull down the Naga national movement. And depending on this easy money from the GoI, many Nagas have gone crazy after money and became lazy unlike their counterpart Nagas who are struggling hard toiling soil with their sweats for their living. It’s very unfortunate and sad that some of the Nagas including the Naga leaders have totally forgotten the purpose of their forefathers’ national movement who have sacrificed their lives for the future Naga generation.

Many Naga people have been observing and crying silently in their heart what were happening recently in the present state Nagaland. And it’s indeed very unfortunate that something is going beyond the state of people mind to continue observing silently. What’s there for the Nagas in present Nagaland state without the Nagas from other parts of the Nagalim? And what’s there for the Nagas in Myanmar or Manipur or any other state without the other Nagas? Do you think that the present Nagas in Nagaland state have become more powerful, popular and bolder without the Nagas from other parts of the Nagas? Do you think the wisdom of some Nagas are taken back by God? Do you think that GoI will pour in more money to Nagaland state if the Nagas in present state of Nagaland demand for a separate Naga political solution?

Some of the Naga leaders from NNC claims to be the sole representative of the Nagas in Nagaland (Nagalim)? And they also claim to be the only Naga National movement which can bring Naga political solution. Do the NNC also endorses the claims of Naga political solution for the Nagas in Nagaland state or do the NNC stands for the whole Nagas?

*What is the main purpose of Naga National movement?*
Is the Naga national movement started by Naga Club and later by the late Phizo – the father of the Naga nation is only for the present state Nagaland state? Even if some of the Naga leaders from the present state Nagaland state are brainwashed by Indian money and other facilities available in the state, and might have forgotten the main purpose of our Naga National movement, anyone can ask any non-Nagas on the purpose of the Naga National movement.

What are the main reasons of some leaders in present state Nagaland who have totally lost their mind, memories and Naga political history from their mind? The main purpose of our National movement is very clear from the beginning till today. And even though some of the Nagas including some of the Naga leaders in present Nagaland state have lost their mind, memories and forgotten the Naga political history, but we should be happy that more than 99% of the Nagas are for our Naga National movement to bring a honourable solution.

*Who recognized the Naga national movement?*
1. The Naga national movement is recognized and supporting by UNPO. The UNPO has recongised Naga as one of the indigenous nation, and give their support for our Nagas rights to self-determination.

2. The Naga International Support Center, Amsterdam, a human rights organization recognized and support the Nagas rights to self-determination. Some of the other Naga factions also trying to connect with NISC to get international support from outside.

3. The Baptist World Baptist Alliance (BWA), also recognized the Naga political problem, and gives their prayer support for Naga reconciliation and early Naga political solution. The Baptist World Alliance (BWA) held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from July 4 to 9 in 2011, affirmed support to the long-protracted Naga issue and with the affirmation, a total of 120 nations federating with BWA would focus to advocate the Naga issue to all corners of the world through prayers.
4. The Indian Government recognized the Naga political problem and the uniqueness of the Naga history, and thus a ceasefire agreement was made to process the Indo-Naga peace-talks.

5. Based on recognition of uniqueness of the Naga history and Naga problem is a political problem, the GOI also made a Framework Agreements on 3rd August 2015.

Then how comes that suddenly some of the Nagas in Nagaland have changed their demand from Naga political movement into Nagaland state political solution? The Nagas outside the present state Nagaland may not have the rights to interfere in state political issue. However, every concern Naga has the rights to interfere in the state political affair when anything that goes against the interest of the Naga national movement. The Naga nationalists were working on to bring all the Nagas (Nagaland, Myanmar, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh) as one nation since 1940s.

*Is the Naga nation only for the Nagas in Nagaland state?* Why some of the Nagas of Nagaland have changed the Naga national movement into Nagaland state movement? Why some of the Nagas of Nagaland have lost their vision and hope? Today, some of the frustrated leaders who believe in “Divided we retain our leadership; united we lost our leadership” are leading some section of the Naga people. And some of the Naga gullible people are following them too. Leadership changes too. There can be misunderstanding, jealousy, hatred and ideological differences within a faction, tribe or nation. And out of frustration, hatred, ideological differences or other reasons – some of the leaders may want to retain their leadership by forming a few faction or organization. But one should not mislead other people to pull down the national movement. And also one should not change the Naga national movement into Nagaland state people movement. Kuknalim

Source: http://morungexpress.com/nagas-nagaland-state-political-solution/

Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    26 Jul. 2015 1:02 AM IST
(From previous issue)
6. Political boundaries demarcated by the Britishers
Verrier Elwin had written in his treatise ‘’The Nagas in the 19th Century’’, Henry Harvesham Godwin to read what -Austen’s name is mentioned in it, not only as an explorer and geologist, but also an expert topographical drawing of who first went to Burma (now called Myanmar) where he explored the navigable waterways of the Irrawady delta. In the early part of 1856, he was attached to the Trigonometrical Survey of India to assist the first survey of Kashmir. He surveyed the great Karakoram glaciers together with the giant mountains that enclose them. In 1862, he mapped the northern border of the Pongong District on the Western edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and the following year he proceeded to Bhutan for mapping the areas between Sikkim and Punakha and the neighboring regions.
Godwin-Austen’s next assignment came when he had to survey Assam where he commanded the party and fully engaged in the survey of the Garo, Khasi and Jantia and some parts of the Brahmaputra.
In 1872, after 2 years leave, Godwin-Austen returned to India, much to the relief of his department. On his arrival, he was appointed as Deputy Superintendent of Survey with the assignment to survey and lay fixed political boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur and also to explore Patkoi range. A host of British officers, namely :- Captain Butler, Dr. Gordon, J. Johnstone who was Boundary Commissioner 1881-82, Lieutenant Ridgeway, Godwin-Austen’s two associates – Hinde and Ogle who were Assistant Surveyors and may others involved in the survey operation as the situation was slowly stabilizing. Dr. Brown became Political Agent in Manipur in 1868, and in 1873, he went with the Survey Party to settle the boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur.
The British officers seemed to have acquired an indefatigable spirit of hill-walking only when they landed in our country and began survey operations by walking through difficult terrains and hostile environment which was physically and mentally knackering. But years after, they were accustomed to such vagaries of nature that, on one occasion J. Johnstone had to say “hill-walking no longer tired me”. He went on to say, “Life is never monotonous as I take long walk everyday round the hills for important works”.
In the early part of February 1884, J. Johnstone, accompanied by Lieutenant Ridgeway, an interpreter and some men had visited Meluri, Akhegwo, Lephori (the writer’s village), and thence to Somrah (now in Myanmar),Wahong, Nganchan, Lasour of Tangkhul area, and on February 13,1884, he revisited the place where he encamped on the ground they occupied in 1881-82, when he was Boundary Commissioner. The next day he inspected the boundary pillars he had set up in 1881-82, and found intact which he said was a satisfactory proof that the settlement was not unacceptable to either Manipur or Burma.
7. Why boundaries are needed?
It is well known even to a man in the street that boundary demarcations are the imperative need, not only between nations and states but also between the tribes, villages and individuals in order to avoid any conflict that might arise in the absence of it. It was not a thought-out modern concept but it was there since time immemorial, if we care to read Deuteronomy 27: 17, 32:8 and Proverbs 22: 28. The Bible warns us the danger of removing the ancient boundary pillars set up by our forefathers as it would invite God’s wrath. It is also equally important to know that if boundary demarcations are not done by taking the consent of people into confidence, it may cause prolonged conflict and can eventually lead to intense conflict between the parties involved in the dispute where the bullets would be flying freely as we have often witnessed in the past, if misrepresentations in the map are not rectified or done away through mutual understanding or an official adjudication.
The tragedy was that, in the case of boundary demarcations between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur, and with other neighboring states, the British officers had done all in a haste in an arbitrary manner without the consent of the people affected by such demarcations, nor on demographic line but on watershed principle of Jigsaw puzzle to suit their day to day administration, with their extremely vile policy of divide and rule, and also for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered areas as it is evident from what is written in “The Nagas in the 19th century ’’ at page 178 which goes like this:“In November 1875, the Chief Commissioner reported that the number of Naga villages tendering revenue to our political officers was increasing”.
The Nagas who were totally ignorant due to illiteracy at that point of time, did not oppose such operations but allowed things to happen according to their whims and fancies even though they could see their territories and its people being traversing out into different administrative segments only to be assimilated later on to the socio-cultural and political identity of the dominant groups in their respective States. Whereas, in the other parts, such operations were opposed physically and politically as Dr. Gordon-Austen, in his own words stated that they were “physically and politically opposed to such operations”.
(To be concluded)

Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    25 Jul. 2015 
1. Why is the Naga society beset with so many internal disorders and conflicts?
Many thoughtful persons agree that something manifestly is going wrong with the Naga society but nobody cares to assume responsibility to define the nature of its causes and formulate a solution for the same. Why are there too many internal disorders and conflicts? To this, I can say without hesitation that all our internal disorders and conflicts that beset Naga society is due to the many unsettled conditions which we now need to identify and discover the hidden assets for rebuilding the Naga society. The volatile situations that often emanated from border and land disputes which are spreading across the state and beyond like virus is slowly eating into the vital parts of our collective future.
Look, the situation that has been going on between Konyak and Chang who could not see eye to eye for the past so many years which has already cost loss of many valuable lives; the recent clash between Yimchunger and Chang over land dispute leading to extreme form of raw vandalism to properties of one tribe by another; the frequent border clashes that involve between several villages of Nagaland and Manipur states under Phek district in the most virulent form for the past many years; the intermittent border clashes between Assam and Nagaland states in the Karbi sector; the recent border conflict between SAYO and Mao community¬¬- all these and others, have destroyed a sense of oneness amongst the Nagas almost irreconcilably.
It is indeed tragic and painful that, at the time when Nagas are sorely in need of unity for achieving our common goal, there are irreconcilable conflicts everywhere over boundary issue which can potentially affect the collective destiny of the Nagas. The malaise had reached to such a level that a day is not far off when the unity of the Nagas may be torn asunder beyond any possibility of gluing back together the bits and pieces. A warning bell has already been sounded that the Nagas need to be very careful and cautious in tackling issue that affects the whole Naga people. Let the NGOs and Civil Societies in Nagaland seriously think about setting up module for peace advocacy, although few feel strongly about the need for it as peace-making is a very tedious process. We need to set our house in order immediately.
2. Why peace is needed?
Peace is pre-requisite to development. As such one of our deals must be peace, based on understanding and self-restraint. Tragically, our relations among our own people as well as with people of neighboring states are far from ideal at this present time. It will do us immense good if each one of us realizes that our future depends on peace. We need to give increasing talk to people around us including others about the need of peace.
It should be kept in mind that every issue can be moderated through enormous respect for reality, and the reality can emerge only when both the parties involved in the dispute can come together with open-mindedness and engage in serious discussion to involve ways and means for meaningful solution. All issues are not insoluble; they are all soluble if we are honest, sincere and determined. The party that lays false claim must admit to being wrong which is not a weakness but a process of healing the wound, for both cannot have right. The lost of a case in the court should not necessarily be construed as a humiliating defeat.
3. Why border and land disputes are rising increasingly ?
Land represents the single most important source of livelihood. People everywhere clamor for land. “The proletariats need land”, said Karl Marx in his Das Kapital. At one point of time in the distant past in our Naga society, lands were aplenty as the population was thinly scattered, and they were in no way pressed for land and its resources as there were vast areas of uninhabited virgin forests. They also did not appreciate the value of land unlike people of our time due to ignorance. They roamed and roamed about like gypsies without any emotional attachment to the land. Apart from this fact, the Nagas were migratory in nature. Their slush and burn agriculture practice accounted for this migratory nature. They kept shifting from place to place along with the shifting of cultivation in that they would abandon their old temporary make-shift huts and move on to a new place near the site where they would decide upon for the next slash and burn cycle.
With the passage of time, people ceased to be nomadic as population was growing exponentially and land and its resources were depleting correspondingly. In fact, we are already at a level where our small planet can no longer support the weight of our population. It is due to this population pressure on land and its resources that border and land disputes are bound to arise at an alarming rate, often creating volatile situations everywhere which are beyond control even by the government authorities. According to 1961 census, the population of Nagaland was recorded as 3, 69,210 only. In 2001 census, the population of Nagaland has shot up to 19, 90,636 with decadal growth of 64.05% as against the national decadal growth of 21.54% (which has almost tripled and abnormally very high). If the decadal growth of population of any given census exceeds 23%, it is said to abnormally high.
This being the trend of population growth, the policy makers and planners should give serious thought to it as the exponential growth of population can have serious impact on the society of the future. We also need to tell our people how they must utilize their land and its resources wisely in such a way that they are not swiftly exhausted in their greed to gain short-term easy money. A resource-starved State like ours where economy is extremely fragile, compounded with insurgency problem and acute unemployment problems, has assumed threatening dimension. Considering all these, we are indeed heading towards the worst of times if we fail to formulate appropriate policies and programs based on visionary and futuristic approach so as to salvage our collective future. In this kind of land you get back less than what you had invested.
4. Type of boundaries:-
There are two types of boundaries:-(1) Traditional boundaries which were in existence since time immemorial and(2) Political boundaries which were demarcated between states by the British government in India for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered area. At some stretch of length, both descriptions coincide.
5. Traditional boundaries:-
Except for interstate boundaries, all other boundaries such as between tribes, villages and individuals in every village are all traditional which are upheld and protected/safeguarded by the customary law and practices which were considered as sacrosanct and inviolable. These traditional boundaries are more authentic, binding and lasting as they have been there since time immemorial much before the British came to our land. The jurisdiction of every Naga tribe or village is clearly delineated from the other mountain spurs, hill ridges, rivers or streams as boundaries to avoid any conflict between the tribes or villages, and these are upheld and protected by the customary practices. The boundaries between individuals are marked out by stone pillars, and any removal of these ancient pillars was considered taboo, and worthy of death. Even the Bible says so, in Deuteronomy 23:27 and Proverbs 22:28. There is three categories of land in almost every village with a few exceptions. They are:- (1) Individual land, (2) clan land and (3) Village community land. Whereas lands held by individuals are meant for agriculture farming, lands held by clan and village community are basically meant for cane and bamboo growing and include reserved forests.
(To be continued)