Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    26 Jul. 2015 1:02 AM IST
(From previous issue)
6. Political boundaries demarcated by the Britishers
Verrier Elwin had written in his treatise ‘’The Nagas in the 19th Century’’, Henry Harvesham Godwin to read what -Austen’s name is mentioned in it, not only as an explorer and geologist, but also an expert topographical drawing of who first went to Burma (now called Myanmar) where he explored the navigable waterways of the Irrawady delta. In the early part of 1856, he was attached to the Trigonometrical Survey of India to assist the first survey of Kashmir. He surveyed the great Karakoram glaciers together with the giant mountains that enclose them. In 1862, he mapped the northern border of the Pongong District on the Western edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and the following year he proceeded to Bhutan for mapping the areas between Sikkim and Punakha and the neighboring regions.
Godwin-Austen’s next assignment came when he had to survey Assam where he commanded the party and fully engaged in the survey of the Garo, Khasi and Jantia and some parts of the Brahmaputra.
In 1872, after 2 years leave, Godwin-Austen returned to India, much to the relief of his department. On his arrival, he was appointed as Deputy Superintendent of Survey with the assignment to survey and lay fixed political boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur and also to explore Patkoi range. A host of British officers, namely :- Captain Butler, Dr. Gordon, J. Johnstone who was Boundary Commissioner 1881-82, Lieutenant Ridgeway, Godwin-Austen’s two associates – Hinde and Ogle who were Assistant Surveyors and may others involved in the survey operation as the situation was slowly stabilizing. Dr. Brown became Political Agent in Manipur in 1868, and in 1873, he went with the Survey Party to settle the boundary between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur.
The British officers seemed to have acquired an indefatigable spirit of hill-walking only when they landed in our country and began survey operations by walking through difficult terrains and hostile environment which was physically and mentally knackering. But years after, they were accustomed to such vagaries of nature that, on one occasion J. Johnstone had to say “hill-walking no longer tired me”. He went on to say, “Life is never monotonous as I take long walk everyday round the hills for important works”.
In the early part of February 1884, J. Johnstone, accompanied by Lieutenant Ridgeway, an interpreter and some men had visited Meluri, Akhegwo, Lephori (the writer’s village), and thence to Somrah (now in Myanmar),Wahong, Nganchan, Lasour of Tangkhul area, and on February 13,1884, he revisited the place where he encamped on the ground they occupied in 1881-82, when he was Boundary Commissioner. The next day he inspected the boundary pillars he had set up in 1881-82, and found intact which he said was a satisfactory proof that the settlement was not unacceptable to either Manipur or Burma.
7. Why boundaries are needed?
It is well known even to a man in the street that boundary demarcations are the imperative need, not only between nations and states but also between the tribes, villages and individuals in order to avoid any conflict that might arise in the absence of it. It was not a thought-out modern concept but it was there since time immemorial, if we care to read Deuteronomy 27: 17, 32:8 and Proverbs 22: 28. The Bible warns us the danger of removing the ancient boundary pillars set up by our forefathers as it would invite God’s wrath. It is also equally important to know that if boundary demarcations are not done by taking the consent of people into confidence, it may cause prolonged conflict and can eventually lead to intense conflict between the parties involved in the dispute where the bullets would be flying freely as we have often witnessed in the past, if misrepresentations in the map are not rectified or done away through mutual understanding or an official adjudication.
The tragedy was that, in the case of boundary demarcations between the erstwhile Naga Hills and Manipur, and with other neighboring states, the British officers had done all in a haste in an arbitrary manner without the consent of the people affected by such demarcations, nor on demographic line but on watershed principle of Jigsaw puzzle to suit their day to day administration, with their extremely vile policy of divide and rule, and also for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered areas as it is evident from what is written in “The Nagas in the 19th century ’’ at page 178 which goes like this:“In November 1875, the Chief Commissioner reported that the number of Naga villages tendering revenue to our political officers was increasing”.
The Nagas who were totally ignorant due to illiteracy at that point of time, did not oppose such operations but allowed things to happen according to their whims and fancies even though they could see their territories and its people being traversing out into different administrative segments only to be assimilated later on to the socio-cultural and political identity of the dominant groups in their respective States. Whereas, in the other parts, such operations were opposed physically and politically as Dr. Gordon-Austen, in his own words stated that they were “physically and politically opposed to such operations”.
(To be concluded)

Land and border disputes

By: Z. Katiry (Ex-MLA From Meluri:    25 Jul. 2015 
1. Why is the Naga society beset with so many internal disorders and conflicts?
Many thoughtful persons agree that something manifestly is going wrong with the Naga society but nobody cares to assume responsibility to define the nature of its causes and formulate a solution for the same. Why are there too many internal disorders and conflicts? To this, I can say without hesitation that all our internal disorders and conflicts that beset Naga society is due to the many unsettled conditions which we now need to identify and discover the hidden assets for rebuilding the Naga society. The volatile situations that often emanated from border and land disputes which are spreading across the state and beyond like virus is slowly eating into the vital parts of our collective future.
Look, the situation that has been going on between Konyak and Chang who could not see eye to eye for the past so many years which has already cost loss of many valuable lives; the recent clash between Yimchunger and Chang over land dispute leading to extreme form of raw vandalism to properties of one tribe by another; the frequent border clashes that involve between several villages of Nagaland and Manipur states under Phek district in the most virulent form for the past many years; the intermittent border clashes between Assam and Nagaland states in the Karbi sector; the recent border conflict between SAYO and Mao community¬¬- all these and others, have destroyed a sense of oneness amongst the Nagas almost irreconcilably.
It is indeed tragic and painful that, at the time when Nagas are sorely in need of unity for achieving our common goal, there are irreconcilable conflicts everywhere over boundary issue which can potentially affect the collective destiny of the Nagas. The malaise had reached to such a level that a day is not far off when the unity of the Nagas may be torn asunder beyond any possibility of gluing back together the bits and pieces. A warning bell has already been sounded that the Nagas need to be very careful and cautious in tackling issue that affects the whole Naga people. Let the NGOs and Civil Societies in Nagaland seriously think about setting up module for peace advocacy, although few feel strongly about the need for it as peace-making is a very tedious process. We need to set our house in order immediately.
2. Why peace is needed?
Peace is pre-requisite to development. As such one of our deals must be peace, based on understanding and self-restraint. Tragically, our relations among our own people as well as with people of neighboring states are far from ideal at this present time. It will do us immense good if each one of us realizes that our future depends on peace. We need to give increasing talk to people around us including others about the need of peace.
It should be kept in mind that every issue can be moderated through enormous respect for reality, and the reality can emerge only when both the parties involved in the dispute can come together with open-mindedness and engage in serious discussion to involve ways and means for meaningful solution. All issues are not insoluble; they are all soluble if we are honest, sincere and determined. The party that lays false claim must admit to being wrong which is not a weakness but a process of healing the wound, for both cannot have right. The lost of a case in the court should not necessarily be construed as a humiliating defeat.
3. Why border and land disputes are rising increasingly ?
Land represents the single most important source of livelihood. People everywhere clamor for land. “The proletariats need land”, said Karl Marx in his Das Kapital. At one point of time in the distant past in our Naga society, lands were aplenty as the population was thinly scattered, and they were in no way pressed for land and its resources as there were vast areas of uninhabited virgin forests. They also did not appreciate the value of land unlike people of our time due to ignorance. They roamed and roamed about like gypsies without any emotional attachment to the land. Apart from this fact, the Nagas were migratory in nature. Their slush and burn agriculture practice accounted for this migratory nature. They kept shifting from place to place along with the shifting of cultivation in that they would abandon their old temporary make-shift huts and move on to a new place near the site where they would decide upon for the next slash and burn cycle.
With the passage of time, people ceased to be nomadic as population was growing exponentially and land and its resources were depleting correspondingly. In fact, we are already at a level where our small planet can no longer support the weight of our population. It is due to this population pressure on land and its resources that border and land disputes are bound to arise at an alarming rate, often creating volatile situations everywhere which are beyond control even by the government authorities. According to 1961 census, the population of Nagaland was recorded as 3, 69,210 only. In 2001 census, the population of Nagaland has shot up to 19, 90,636 with decadal growth of 64.05% as against the national decadal growth of 21.54% (which has almost tripled and abnormally very high). If the decadal growth of population of any given census exceeds 23%, it is said to abnormally high.
This being the trend of population growth, the policy makers and planners should give serious thought to it as the exponential growth of population can have serious impact on the society of the future. We also need to tell our people how they must utilize their land and its resources wisely in such a way that they are not swiftly exhausted in their greed to gain short-term easy money. A resource-starved State like ours where economy is extremely fragile, compounded with insurgency problem and acute unemployment problems, has assumed threatening dimension. Considering all these, we are indeed heading towards the worst of times if we fail to formulate appropriate policies and programs based on visionary and futuristic approach so as to salvage our collective future. In this kind of land you get back less than what you had invested.
4. Type of boundaries:-
There are two types of boundaries:-(1) Traditional boundaries which were in existence since time immemorial and(2) Political boundaries which were demarcated between states by the British government in India for the purpose of revenue collection within the British administered area. At some stretch of length, both descriptions coincide.
5. Traditional boundaries:-
Except for interstate boundaries, all other boundaries such as between tribes, villages and individuals in every village are all traditional which are upheld and protected/safeguarded by the customary law and practices which were considered as sacrosanct and inviolable. These traditional boundaries are more authentic, binding and lasting as they have been there since time immemorial much before the British came to our land. The jurisdiction of every Naga tribe or village is clearly delineated from the other mountain spurs, hill ridges, rivers or streams as boundaries to avoid any conflict between the tribes or villages, and these are upheld and protected by the customary practices. The boundaries between individuals are marked out by stone pillars, and any removal of these ancient pillars was considered taboo, and worthy of death. Even the Bible says so, in Deuteronomy 23:27 and Proverbs 22:28. There is three categories of land in almost every village with a few exceptions. They are:- (1) Individual land, (2) clan land and (3) Village community land. Whereas lands held by individuals are meant for agriculture farming, lands held by clan and village community are basically meant for cane and bamboo growing and include reserved forests.
(To be continued)

NIGHT CLUB/ DISCOTHEQUE A MENACE TO THE NAGA SOCIETY.

By: Apem Hongvah

Dimapur,Nagaland

Before I write about the night life in Nagaland particularly in the commercial hub, Dimapur let me dwell a bit about the history and evolution of nightclub. A nightclub (also known as a discotheque, or simply a club or disco) is an entertainment venue which usually operates late night. It is generally distinguished from bars, pubs, taverns by the inclusion of a dance floor and a Dj booth where DJ plays recorded music. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano a jukebox. Webster hall is credited as the first modern nightclub.


During US prohibition, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars with rumors circulation of police bribery. With the repeal of prohibition in February 1993 nightclubs were revived and the rest is history .Nightclub entry criteria may vary from club to club. Many nightclubs choose who can enter on the basis other than just age, e.g. dress code and guest list. This is used to make their status as a nightclub more “exclusive “quiteoften, there are no clear policies governing entry into nightclub thereby allowing doormen/bouncer to deny entry to anybody at their discretion. I for one had partied in different metropolitan cities in India and had also organized events in different parts in Indiaparticularly in the capital city Delhi and in NCR region like Gurgaon and Noida. Most of the party goers in cities are working people and of course the universities students. Cent percent of the party goers would hit the club either in the weekend or during their week off just so to relief themselves from their stressfully weeklong workload. There is no denying the fact there always are people who hit with club to gratify their sexual pleasure (depending upon the situation based on consensual).

The existence of club in the so called commercial hub in Dimapur had a different story to tell altogether .I had visited almost all the club in Dimapur which I am not proud of. Whilst I was in Delhi I heard a lot about the nightlife in Dimapur from many friends and I was actually fascinated by such stories which in reality turn out to be otherwise .Unlike the clubs in metropolitan cities there is no such thing called ‘AGE LIMIT’ in Dimapur night club. Most of the party goers are underage (you will also get to see lots of married woman and married man which I don’t object so long as they came and spend their own money) but the problem kicks in when a married man would try to hit a young girl (mostly wearing a skimpy dress) who would of actually been his daughter age. Since the club owner doesn’t check the identity card to confirm about the biological age cent percent of the clubbers are underage with no income or less income (most of them depends on their parents for their pocket money) what is more ironical is the presence of hordes of miya’s , marwaris, Indians (no pun intended- allow me to be a a bit selfish in this) .

I get to see lots of North eastern girl hanging out with the main land Indians, Nigerians, hippies, Russians in metropolitan cities and who am I to raise objection in such matter so long as they are hanging out with mutual consent .However, I never could imagine in my wildest dream that such trend would happen in my own land where I was born and raised. However to my dismay I get to see lots of young Naga girl hovering around with the miya’s or for that matter outsiders.one of the reason why our Naga girl hang around with them could be because they find it more secure with them plus they might as well be paying them (it’s just a speculation tough).

Another drawbacks of nightclub in Dimapur is it doesn’t have any time limit.so long as the party goers continue to shell out their money and buy drinks the club will remain open until morning and thus it gives an opportunity to people who came with ulterior motives to finished their unfinished business taking maximum advantages of those drunk and happy going kids who party like there is no tomorrow and doesn’t mind sharing their bed when given a ride or offer some assistance. I had been told that some young Naga girls had been chased out from their parents because they would sneak out at wee hours almost like every day to hit the club and would return home in the morning (some end up sleeping at their friends place /hotels). The parents couldn’t condone such behaviors which eventually force them to take suck extreme steps in a bid to either keep them at bay or just so to let their child learned a lesson. Such girls would end up living at their friends place or they would group themselves and stay at a lodge or lives in a rented apartment with no income to support which eventually force them to give paid services even. How cheap have we become? As opposed to club in metro cities most of the club goers in Nagaland goes to club like thrice or even more in a week if my source is correct. So you can imagine how do they manage to get the money in the club when most of them are underage with no income or with very less income (I know there are many children from a well to do family as well) keeping in mind the exorbitant rate charge by the club in any alcoholic beverages (in a tax free -so called dry state, underground might as well have their own share ).

There are hordes of hooligans in the club as well. Most Guys would end up flexing their muscles by hitting each other. They would drink like there is no tomorrow and the more they drink the more boosts full they are likely to become which eventually leads to individual fights or group fights. Fighting’s in the club is common phenomenon everywhere but at least in other parts of the world they maintain some level of decency. Group fights can even results in the loss of a life. Most of the Dimapur club doesn’t have a proper lift system and walk over. Any drunken person could of easily fall and hit the ground (I am just saying). Looking at the way things are changing around the world we too want to become one yet the way we behave and act is just so pathetic (pathetic is the word I would want to use).

My whole point being the existence of club is doing more harm than good. I for one wouldn’t recommend having a club in Nagaland at the moment because it still is not at a par with the rest of the world in terms of maintaining a standard and the way we behave .Let us be civil first even if at all there has to be a club in Nagaland (depending on the consensus of the people).while appreciating the Announcement of banning of nightclub in Dimapur by the NSCN (IM) ,it is also requested to enforce in letter and in spirit less it becomes a mockery .In this venture the involvement of civil societies, students activist ,youth leaders is much needed .A holistic approach to address the problem is the need of the hour. It needs a concerted effort from all and sundry. Am certain that the club owner (I don’t have any personal grudges) might try to offer something to let things run as it is. But for posterity sake it will be best to ignore when such offer comes in their table. If the NSCN leaders can manage to do that and if the civil societies can co-operate by not only raising their voice but give their time and energy by educating the masses we can say that we are cleaning up the mess for real .

 

How would you term Rio’s shift to the centre?

By: Thepfulhouvi Solo. 
I would like to propose the question to the citizens of Nagaland as to how they would term the Chief Minister Neiphi Rio’s Shift of his political Field of Play from the STATE to the NATIONAL.
The question is a bit uneasy to most thinking Nagas; some seemed a little uneasy and others hesitant to answer because the question has a load and has also a Rider too.
One veteran old Thinker said:
“let me think and phone you a little later’.
And a little later, he phoned me:
“He (Rio) has mischievously bamboozled the people”.
The Writer asked: “What do you mean by ‘Bamboo-zzle’?”
And he said:
“You look up in the Dictionary for the meaning”.
I leafed through the big heavy ‘OXFORD DICTIONARY’ and it said: (cheat, hoax, mystify).
Another said: “I would not call it ‘a cheat or hoax’; I would call it: ‘very undesirable’”.
“Don’t say anything now, you just remain quiet and see what will happen after the Election Result: he may even resign if he does not get a Ministerial birth”, another said:
 The Writer -without malice to the Person- would say: “Rio has gone to the Centre in search of a Jersey Cow which will give more milk to him than the Desi Cow”.
The time has come to Nagaland for us to talk very frankly, even vulgarly naked Truth sometimes, but with very little malice, so that Nagaland is purged of its Dross out of our inadequacies.
Jersey Island is a 49 square mile Area, much nearer the French Coast in the English Channel, but the Island belongs to the UK. Soon after you land in the Airport; in stead of hearing modern noisy Vehicles and Cars, you become aware the Island is a cacophony of deeply mowing Cows here and there all over the places, one after the other.
Jersey Island is famous for its high milk yielding Jersey Cows and the Municipal jealously guards the Breed of the Cows. Nobody is allowed to keep a Bull Cow without a 300 years history of high milk Yield Record, every Bull must have  a Government Registration Number marked on the inside of one of its Ears!
One night, over the Dinner, a Farmer told all about the Animal and said a Cow yielded a record 32. kg of Jersey Milk a day the English are very fond of. Most of the male Cows on birth, are donated to the Jersey Zoo of World Famous Gerald Durrell, born in an Assam Tea Garden and invited a head hunter Naga!
Mr. Rio’s abandoning Shift of the Chief Minister Seat in Nagaland, is said to be a case of personal sacrifice for Nagaland; but the undesirables and the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages to the public:
i. It would lessens the special category status of the State of Nagaland.
From 1929 on, the Nagas have been stating a separate category of life from Mainstream life of India. Nagaland got a great measure what it wanted: -a special category of constitutional provision of Freedom for the Traditional Customary Practices and the Right of the Ownership of the land and its resources for the Nagas of Nagaland from the overriding weight of Indian Parliament.
The kith and kin people of the other Northeast States also now clamor for similar treatment from the Centre. If the Centre accedes; it may start a long domino effect to its burdens. On the other hand, if it would not listen to the voices of the other majority of the States; it would appear the Centre is not playing just.
The Centre is on the horns of dilemma on the Issue and if the Centre observes even a slight change in Nagaland’s tight rope walk, that would compromise the State’s future.
By giving too much company to the common Northeast lot, Nagaland’s special category would be compromised. Nagaland must maintain its own Politics. It would do well for Nagaland to maintain its friendly distance from other Northeast States to preserve the special, peculiar Constitutional provisions it has.
Rio accepting the Convenership of the Federation of lip-service other Regional Parties of the Northeast, in liaison with the national Bharata Janata Party (BJP), is impure Milk.
ii. The Shift would disturb one of the most precious modern Government’s democratic Principle of Secularism.
 People in the rest of India today see a completely different look and Christian in the Nagas, at Nagaland and the Northeast: The Ethos of the BJP is Hindu; its hand and its fingers are not graceful to the people of other Religions. The Party intends to make a Bridge head in the Christian Northeast and if Christian Nagaland agrees to be yoked with it; my view it that it would be not good for the Society, if not unchristian.
Most Christian Theologians in Nagaland are well aware of Politics & Religion in the State and most keep themselves away from the Politics part of the combination. That is good but wise worldly silence often brings more harm to a Society than an honest voice against.
 iii. The sudden Shift would create a political Gulmal in Nagaland.
If Messi and Ronaldo were to suddenly change their playing Field from Spain to England, there will be considerable disturbances in the whole European football Club rankings: Rios sudden change of political playing field from Nagaland to Delhi may unfortunately create a political tsunami in Nagaland.
Already the rushing sound of a great Wind is heard; it is not known whether it will bring the Holy Spirit or political uncertainty to the State. If Rio failed to get a BJP Ministerial birth; it will be a loss to Nagaland a little and a great loss to Isac and Muivah! “You just keep quiet and wait and see”, advised an esteemed colleague.

ON ‘ANY NAGA TRIBES’ OF ARUNACHAL

From Homjong Matcha People of erstwhile Tirap district have no ethnic names. Though communities described or knew themselves as Nocte, Tangsa and Wancho in the past, the Constitution of India had shoved them into an unsorted miscellaneous can, called ‘Any Naga Tribe’. Therefore, people want to be identified by a specific ethnical name, not as ‘Any Naga’. But it is still dangling around their neck, like a locket, even after 65 years of the Indian republic. Isn’t it denial of right to ethnic identity?
Glimpse into history As early as 1958, elder guardians of this district of NEFA wrote a letter with presents to the first prime minister of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru, introducing their ethnic identities as Nocte, Tangsa, Wancho and Singpho, to which he responded scribbling in his own hand, dated 18.11.1958, which is still alive, welcoming any reader. It reads: ‘To Nocte, Tangsa, Wanchoo and Singpho. My dear children, thank you for your letter and the beautiful presents you have sent me. I like them very much. My love to you all.’ This surely was the first attempt from elders of the tribes for official recognition of their ethnic identity. But they had no idea and means to pursue it further.
It got buried deep under passage of time. There was no one in New Delhi to stir it up to fruition. Question arises as to when and how the term ‘Naga’ or ‘Any Naga’ came into existence in regards to people of the then Tirap district. Gazetteer of India, Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap district reveals that the Ahom who came from upper Burma through Pangsau Pass in the thirteenth century and ruled in Assam from 1228 AD and came into contact with these tribal people, was first to call ‘Eastern Naga’ or ‘Noga’. Before that, probably no contemporary outside world knew about these tribes.
It appears, British inherited the term straight away from Ahom when Assam came under British rule, and then passed it further on to Independent India. But, no author’s writing on origin and history of Naga has come to the knowledge, as yet. Challenges to nomenclature If the Ahoms coined the term ‘Naga’, what did it stand for, in Ahom or Tai language? Why was it termed so? Wherefrom the word ‘Naga’ derived? Why should a race or tribe accept the name given by foreigner? These are the questions, answers of which are yet to find.
The last one question is probably, the ideology many others had already posed, and challenged too. Take the example of Indian cities that have been changed to local names; such as: Calcutta to Kolkata, Bombay to Mumbai, Gauhati to Guwahati, etc. Even country’s name had been changed to suit local term and meaning. The nationality of Burma was called ‘Man’ which Burmese perhaps, pronounce as ‘Myan’. Therefore, the country was rechristened as ‘Myanmar’. Every term has its origin and meaning. So, people of undivided Tirap too, have for their ethnic tribes; such as Noc = village, te = people; so Nocte means ‘village people’.
Similarly, Tang = hill, sa = children. So Tangsa means ‘children of hills’. On other hand, ‘Any Naga’ suggests nameless, unexplored, insignificant human species that might still be dwelling in the forest of Nagaland hills. Does it not imply derogatory and disgracing meaning? The aforementioned gazetteer describes, “the term ‘Naga’ is a generic name applies to large number of tribes and sub-tribes living in the then Tirap district and Nagaland.” But there’s no mention about origin and evolution of the term ‘Naga’. For reason of obscurity of its origin, today people take the term ‘Naga’ for ‘naked’. Information gleaned from Wikipedia throws light that Naga people were snake-worshippers of Sri Lankan Hindus who migrated to Pandya kingdom in third century BCE, and assimilated to Tamil culture, and lost their separate identity. This makes a sense and meaning to the term ‘Naga’.
Further, H Parker, a British historian and author of ‘Ancient Ceylon’ considered the Naga tribe to be an offshoot of the Nayars of Kerela. These Nagas are, other than Naga tribes of present Nagaland, and come under category of ‘Any Nagas’. So, does it mean Noctes, Tangsas and Wanchos are descendents of Sri Lankan or Kerelian Nagas?
Dr Horam, a Naga scholar wrote: “Some people believe the present group of Nagas came from Philippines where there is place called ‘Naga’.” But, this appears to be an assumption, not backed by definite historical references. Delving into the bottom The gazetteer of India, Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap district which is considered to be authentic official record, provides at chapter 11 as follows: “… placed between the plains of the Brahmaputra on the west and the valley of the Irrawaddy on the east, this area witnessed movement of people from across the Patkai ranges from time immemorial. Hordes of migratory tribes of the Mongoloids called Kirata in the ancient Indian scriptures, were drifted to Assam through this district (then Tirap).
It was in Assam and its neighbouring regions that these tribes were absorbed.” We have not come across any historic record and reference that Mongoloid kiratas had further migrated out from this region to elsewhere directions, or had any other tribe came to replace them. There’s no mention of the term ‘Naga’ either, during those period of history of great migration. Whereas Hindu scriptures and mythology in the Mahabharata, has a mention about Kiratas as dwellers of the eastern Himalayas where ‘Bhima meets Kiratas to the east of Videha.’ The area of Kiratas is said to have extended from Eastern Nepal to North Eastern India. In Vasistha too, Lord Rama referred to Kiratas as ‘mountain dwellers who laid trap to catch roving deer, by digging pitch’.
But RB Thohe Pou, in his article ‘The Myths of Naga Origin’ quoted JH Hutton who wrote, “All sorts of origins have been connected with the Head hunters of Malay and the races of Southern Seas on the one hand, and traced back to China, on the other hand.” In the article, the author has presented more discussions about Nagas of British period from 1832 AD, rather than attempting to discover systematic history of Naga origin as a race or tribe which matters most.
Free encyclopaedia sources reveal that “the Kirata is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in mountains, particularly in Himalayas and North East India, and who were postulated to have been Mongoloid in origin.” Because of their living in mountain, it has been theorised that the word Kirata or Kirati meant ‘people with lion nature’. Tanka Bahadur Subba in his ‘Politics of Culture: A Study of Three Kirata Communities in the Eastern Himalayas’ wrote about a Kirata scholar, Narad Muni Thulung; “…to him, it is derived from two words: ‘Kira’ meaning ‘Lion’, and ‘ti’ meaning ‘people’, or ‘’ People with Lion Nature’.”
The same source goes on to reveal that “The Kirata people practised shamanism, they call it Kirata religion. In animism and shamanism, they worshipped Nature and believed in primeval ancestors. They had two main festivals: one during plantation and another during the time of harvest.” These traits of cultural and religious believe system of Kiratas fully agree with that of the systems professed by present North-Eastern tribes’, except those who became Buddhists, Christians and Muslims.
Given the similarity in physical features of the people, culture and religious belief systems between Mongoloid Kiratas and hill tribes of North Eastern India, particularly across Patkai ranges, it may be believe that they are the descendents of Kiratas who migrated in different periods, settled in different geographical areas by different ethnic names; independent to one another. As Pablo Bartholomeo in his article ‘Naga: Hidden Hill People of India’ wrote,
“While Naga cultures share many traits, each is distinct indeed”; and as a Naga author Ayinla Shilu Ao wrote,
“Every tribe could virtually be a nation unto itself”, all the ethnic tribes of so-called ‘Nagas’ are independent to each other, and hence, they need to be identified and recognised by their respective ethnic tribe, accordingly. To this, some people may be snubbing what was wrong in identifying as ‘any Naga’. It’s only affected people who understand and carry the brunt of it, ever since Naga nationalist movement had extended its arms to these ‘Any Naga’ districts, making development a bottomless effort. Once, people of these districts in NEFA days were in peace, though not in prosperity, they have now been made to forget the concept of peace, freedom and liberty.
End anonymity Therefore, Noctes, Tangsas, Wanchos and Tutsas – the Nature worshippers, who were independent by birth, deserve to be recognised as independent tribes among scheduled tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, and once for all, end their anonymity. For that matter, New Delhi, or Arunachal Pradesh, or people themselves, or any other stake holder has nothing to lose. (The views expressed are the writer’s own and not necessarily of this daily)
Source: http://arunachalfront.info/article.php?ArticleID=3854

Naga social perspective in view

By: G.Gwangphun, A Social Research activist

Behold how ugly and how unpleasant it is for the Naga brethren to dwell together in disunity. It is like the flood of Brahmaputra running down the valley of Naga Assam causing the blessing of self-destruction upon the land and themselves. It is like the wind of Bangladesh that uproots thousands of dwelling houses claiming hundreds of lives. Nagas are enjoying the curse of God as blessings in disguise. The wrong is taken to be right and right wrong. Nagas lack one big thing, sense of HUMANITY.  Culture of Christianity is not practiced only professed. Culture of tolerance is over-ruled by fashion of impatient.  Anger and hatred against each other are manifested in the cruel behavior and short tempered way of saying and acting in home, street, work places and public places. Nagas take pride in getting angry, fighting and using abusive languages. Nagas generally practices faultfinding, putting each other down, practice nepotism, sectionalism, tribalism and partism.  These are the negative lots of the Naga society at large. Many positive aspects and qualities are embedded in the Nature of the Nagas but not practiced as a culture.
I am urged to speak up the truth of what and how we Nagas can do and must live for. I feel sharply, a spirit of discernment urging me to spell out the wrong and warn like a prophet of old in the modern fashion (laugh). The spirit  burden me to speak to the Naga people what will soon come to pass and what must be done in such a time as this. Before I spell out my view, I must be honest to check out myself; Am I Prideful, boastful, selfish, acting good, smart? or working for  recognition, praise or earthly material reward?  Denouncing all these, I am writing this article in the spirit of love with a sense of social responsibility and moral obligation as a Naga.

I have this straight message to share:  We Nagas are too narrowed down to tribalism so much that we  lost sight of our National sentiment and the importance of living together as a people seem a distant thing.  What is wrong with the Nagas? Conscience deadened? Human compassion bankrupted? Wisdom and love drained dry? Humane thinking distorted? Covetousness and cruelty attitude or mood takes the place of humane rationality and moral culture of life? No matter who we were and where have we been in the past, we can change, we can progress and prosper as a people in our own land if we seek first the Kingdom (within) and His (Christ’s) righteousness and not our self-righteousness, then all the goodness and  blessings of prosperity  as a people shall naturally be added unto us. Mathew 6:33.  Repentance is admitting the wrong done and deciding not to do it again. It is call self reconciliation. Social reconciliation begins from self to society. The spirit of reconciling can melt the hearts of stones of those who don’t like us.

I observed that, Nagas pray wrong, expect wrong, think wrong and do things wrong. The truth is that, God’s blessing is already available in us, we need not pray for blessing, not for healing but for wisdom and understanding how to utilize and develop or activate the blessing or healing given us of God.  Many Naga Christians are needlessly shouting with repetition and loud vocal “praise the Lord”, “Halleluiah” many times. Sounds religious but only emotional and a noise. For Nagas prayer is not devotional or meditational, its begging, complaining, demanding and never listening and never thinking of what God is willing to and giving us. After Prayer, forget all. With the act and sound of religion, many judges, condemns and criticizes the sinners around them, faultfinding, gossiping and denouncing the falling, failing and broken neighbors. “When you pray, do not use vain repetitions as the heathen do”- Matthew 6:7.

We tend to reject others easily, just for a silly matter or for petty inconveniences. Nagas have great misunderstandings. Great rejecting mentality, great destructive attitude. With these, Nagas are suffering. Many Nagas don’t play moral politics, lasting politics, or ethical politics. They are the spoiler politicians.  Reasoned that, We have Naga Govt. in the state. Instead of strengthening we weaken it by throwing all garbages as if Govt of Nagaland is the dustbin of humane wickedness and failings.  We have social organizations; each tribal Hohos but overlooked and disrespectfully treated even by individuals. We have Common Naga Hoho organization for the whole Naga tribal families but weakened, made paralyzed and ignored throwing all failures of the people on it and left condemned. We have Naga Mothers’ Association but left branded as extremist feminist organization, below men’s authority and second classed it. Their moral call for peace, harmony, love and understanding are left unheard, unpaid and dejecting them at the face. We have Naga National Govt. left dishonored and cornered as underground military forces to threaten the over-ground Naga publics.  With these mentality and attitude, many factions and organizations appeared and formed but practically only to further destroy the society.

Those involved may think that they are doing something good. What a waste. What if who frown and fume with criticism, faultfinding’s and complainers were put in the place of responsibility, like the  Govt of Nagaland, Naga Hoho, NMA or Tribal Hohos etc? Can they do better or lead the people a right?  God knows and don’t put them or choose them. As a human person under God’s ruling, we all must learn to obey, tolerate, respect and support the authority above us. Opposing the Govt. or people’s Apex authority is no good way to correct and bring development and prosperity to the people and land. “Ask not what your country can do for you but ask what you can do for the country”.-J.F. Kennedy’s message can and must still be the voice, the understanding and the  role of the Naga individuals and people at home and out of home.

Impact of social media while our elections & politics groping in the dark

By Oken Jeet Sandham

Literally, every person on the street has Facebook Account. In other countries and even in major Indian cities, whether cobbler or rickshaw puller or barber or vegetable vender, they mostly have social media accounts, particularly Facebook. Almost every restaurant – whether small or big – has free Internet facilities through Wi-Fi. Everyone coming to the restaurants is normally seen enjoying free Internet facilities through the Wi-Fi services, while enjoying various cuisines. The whole world is virtually at their fingertips.

Over 80% of the world leaders now have their own social media accounts, particularly Facebook. Starting from mere local politicians to Prime Ministers and Presidents, they all have owned their own social media sites. Many Queens and Kings also have joined social media. Most of them used Facebook extensively to promote their missions and charitable works, while those politicians would do their best to propagate their political and social agendas. Millions of Facebook users will also systematically use the social media sites (Facebook) to promote their commercial ventures. Various professionals will use Facebook to promote their professional programs. To a great extent, their purposes are served.

Since the advent of Facebook, the communities of the world are more connected than ever before. The boundaries have virtually disappeared and the world communities become one family. The people don’t wait any important information of any candidates these days; they can easily get it through their Facebook sites. Besides this, the general publics can directly put their questions in their social media sites and even join debates in it.

We have seen how the last American Presidential elections were fought through various social media sites. Barack Obama and his Republican rivals Senator John McCain and later with Mitt Romney virtually had their presidential campaigns organized in the Facebook and it had largely worked to capture the mood of the voters who were also users of Facebook and other social media sites.

The last American Presidential elections had shown to the world that no one could any longer fight without Facebook and other Social media machines. After the American elections were over, numbers of Facebook and other social media users were seen a quantum jump and it still keeps surging.

Every Prime Minister or President of the world would have their Facebook with millions following them. They virtually pitted against each other for their political and electoral battles. They could systematically advance to many areas. Every activity of any Prime Minister or the main Opposition Leader will be instantly uploaded in their Facebook before it goes to any other online publications, forget about Print Media that will come next day only.

In India, we have now witnessed unprecedented use of Facebook and Twitter, etc. during this time’s upcoming 16th Indian Lok Sabha elections by contending candidates and their political parties. They have been constantly uploading news of election campaigns in their respective social media sites. According to report, the social media, particularly Facebook will play a major role in 2014 elections. It said out of 534 constituencies, 160 were identified as High impact zones, 67 were identified as Medium impact zones while the rest were classified as Low impact zones.

It further disclosed that they were categorized on the basis of internet and Facebook users in that particular constituency. On basis of data collected from past year and equating it with current stats, it concluded that the High impact zones will be the major game changer in 2014 elections.

Nadrendra Modi, the BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate has millions of Facebook and Twitter followers. His electioneering news is constantly uploaded in his and his BJP’s Facebook and Twitter sites. Congress Star Campaigner Rahul Gandhi also equally uses the services of the Facebook and Twitter for propagating his electioneering campaigns, while Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh too can’t help but depending on social media like Facebook to put his political agendas and developments, etc.

Though he projected himself very simple, Arvind Kejriwal, former Delhi Chief Minister and leader of AAP, couldn’t progress without depending on social media. He had to convey his thought, ideas and election campaigns through social media in many cases. In fact, the social media plays integral, both to the candidates and the public.

In India, every political party has their social media sites today. They too have used benefits of the sites to the fullest possible manner to advance their political agendas. Massive political propaganda has been created through Facebook and Twitter by every political party and their leader to project that they are the savior of the country. If closely monitored, it appears that they are unlikely to play politics without the services of Facebook and Twitter. What a revolution indeed.

Even in the Region, State Units of various National Political Parties like the BJP, Congress, etc. have opened their own social media sites and played their own games to only strengthen their propaganda machine.

Every media house does have their own various social media sites, so do all the media persons. In fact, some of the national media houses constantly upload every new development in their news portals as well as their Facebook and Twitter. These have happened, over and above their print editions. Even the electronic media like TV Channels, in spite of their live telecast of each and every development, do constantly upload their news in their Facebook and Twitter.

In Nagaland too, number of social media users are seen increasing leaps and bound. There are heated debates taking place on various issues facing them in their social media sites. Facebook has given space for each and every person to share their thoughts, ideas and plights, etc.

Hundreds of users throw their questions in the Facebook daily or hourly with regard to the current Lok Sabha elections as well as Naga political issue. It is interesting to note that while AICC Vice President Rahul Gandhi was addressing a mammoth election rally at Kohima Local Ground on March 27, news of his address was being uploaded in Facebook and Twitter simultaneously. How advance the Social Media of today is? In fact, immediate political debates generated when he raised the controversial points with regard to Naga political issue where he said, “I will not give any promise as your Chief Minister who said he would bring solution to the Naga issue within three months if he was voted to power.”

Before NPF formally lodged its complaint, the actual debates were over within few hours as soon as it was uploaded in the Facebook and Twitter. It went viral.

It is regretted that NPF and NPCC have just opened their Facebook accounts with hardly any following them. Hardly election campaign news is seen uploading in their sites. They should engage their media personnel to work for their social media sites. Nagaland BJP Unit has, however, been maintaining their Facebook site well.

NPF candidate Neiphiu Rio, who is also DAN consensus candidate, has nearly 500 followers, while Congress Candidate KV Pusa’s seemed to have just been opened recently with less than 100 followers. Some of their party functionaries, of course, have their social media accounts opened. This development clearly shows that they are yet to know the value of social media.

Looking at the present scenario, Nagaland political activities are yet to catch up the social media importance. They are still in the dark while others are busy uploading their activities, yet they do not know what is happening in Facebook with their stories. Here is a wakeup call for our political leaders to join the Facebook or else they will be left out. Courtesy: EPN